Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: Full Plot Summary
The Door Incident
Introduction: "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is a novella that unfolds with a mysterious incident witnessed by Mr Utterson and Mr Enfield, setting the stage for a gripping narrative of duality and deception.
The Door Incident: The story kicks off in the first chapter, 'Story of the Door,' where a conventional third-person narrator introduces Mr Utterson, a lawyer, and his cousin Mr Richard Enfield. While on one of their strolls around London, they encounter a sinister building and witness a shocking event involving a man named Mr Hyde trampling a girl.
Hyde's Detestable Act: The brutality of Hyde's actions is evident as he callously injures the girl. However, to avoid public scrutiny, he agrees to compensate the girl's family. This incident establishes Hyde's sinister character and sets in motion the central mystery of the novella.
Utterson's Concerns: Utterson, disturbed by the incident, becomes increasingly curious about the mysterious Mr Hyde. The plot thickens as Utterson's suspicions grow, leading him to investigate the connection between Hyde and his friend Dr Jekyll.
Forces of Deception: The introduction of Hyde's vile character and the subsequent concealment of his actions create an atmosphere of suspense and intrigue. Readers are drawn into the unfolding mystery, eager to unravel the secrets hidden behind the door of the sinister building.
The Lanyon Revelation
Lanyon's Revelation: As the plot progresses, Utterson's unease deepens. The chapter 'Search for Mr Hyde' unveils Utterson's suspicions about Dr Jekyll's altered will and the mysterious beneficiary, Mr Hyde. To unearth the truth, Utterson turns to his friend Dr Lanyon, hoping for enlightenment.
Utterson's Anxieties: The altered will intensifies Utterson's worries, leading him to speculate about the nature of Jekyll's relationship with Hyde. The suspense builds as Utterson delves deeper into the mystery, grappling with the implications of Hyde's influence over the respected Dr Jekyll.
The Mysterious Mr Hyde: Hyde's elusiveness adds to the intrigue. Utterson's pursuit of the truth takes him to the Soho address provided by Hyde, unveiling the character's physical peculiarities. The revelation of Hyde's appearance intensifies the psychological and emotional impact on Utterson and, by extension, the readers.
Lanyon's Warning: The introduction of Dr Lanyon as a source of information heightens the suspense. Lanyon's refusal to disclose details about Jekyll and Hyde deepens the enigma, leaving Utterson and the readers in suspense about the intertwined destinies of the two characters.
Revelation Unveiled: The narrative takes a dramatic turn in the chapters 'Incident of the Letter' and 'Remarkable Incident of Doctor Lanyon.' Jekyll's confession unfolds through letters, exposing the dark secret of his dual existence. Jekyll confesses to creating Hyde to indulge in vices secretly, initiating a complex exploration of the human psyche.
The Struggle for Control: Jekyll's struggle to control Hyde and prevent his nefarious actions adds depth to the plot. The failed attempts to suppress Hyde's emergence contribute to the psychological tension, illustrating the consequences of unchecked desires and the thin line between good and evil.
Hyde's Rampage: The revelation of Hyde's violent acts, including the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, showcases the destructive consequences of Jekyll's experiments. The tension reaches its peak as Utterson, Utterson's head clerk Mr Guest, and Dr Lanyon become entwined in the consequences of Jekyll's scientific pursuits.
Lanyon's Shock: The shock experienced by Lanyon upon witnessing Hyde transform into Jekyll unveils the horror of the scientific experimentation. Lanyon's subsequent decline and death add a tragic layer to the narrative, emphasizing the high cost of tampering with the boundaries of human nature.
Conclusion: Reflections on Duality
Philosophical Underpinnings: Stevenson's novella, beyond its gripping plot, delves into profound philosophical themes. The exploration of the duality of human nature, the consequences of scientific experimentation, and the blurred lines between morality and temptation enrich the narrative with layers of meaning.
Impact on Readers: Published in 1886, the novella's timeless appeal lies in its ability to resonate with readers across generations. The revelation of Jekyll and Hyde's identity, a surprise twist for the original readers, continues to captivate modern audiences, inviting reflection on the complexities of the human psyche.
Legacy of Duality: Stevenson's exploration of duality has left an enduring legacy in literature and popular culture. The concept of a character divided between good and evil has become a symbolic representation, influencing subsequent works and adaptations that grapple with the inherent contradictions within human nature.
Final Reflection: As the novella concludes with Jekyll's ultimate decision to end his life, readers are left contemplating the consequences of tampering with the fundamental aspects of humanity. The enduring relevance of "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" lies in its ability to provoke introspection and moral contemplation.
Jekyll and Hyde: Detailed Critical Analysis
The genesis of Robert Louis Stevenson's iconic novella, "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde," is marked by a dream-inspired creation. Stevenson, driven by a vivid dream, penned the initial draft in a mere three days. Despite an initial setback, where he discarded the draft due to criticism, Stevenson reconstructed the narrative from scratch in ten days, leading to its publication in January 1886.
Fusion of Genres
The narrative weaves elements of a detective story, Gothic horror, and science fiction, creating a tapestry that demands a nuanced analysis. Stevenson's adept fusion of these genres contributes to the novella's enduring allure and multifaceted interpretation.
Interpreting Jekyll and Hyde
Attempting to distill a singular meaning from a narrative rich in allegory and symbolism proves challenging. Stevenson's work invites multiple interpretations, each shedding light on different facets of the human psyche and societal dynamics.
Freudian Lens: One compelling interpretation views Jekyll as the ego and Hyde as the id in Freudian terms. The ego represents the conscious self, while the id embodies primal unconscious drives, such as the urge for aggression or inappropriate desires.
Childlike Hyde: Hyde's childlike description raises questions about a return to an earlier, carefree state, possibly symbolizing the desire to escape adult responsibilities. Freudian concepts like the Oedipus complex and the longing for pre-adult life find echoes in Hyde's attacks on father figures.
Dreamlike Elements: Stevenson's fascination with dreams, evident in his essays and personal accounts, adds a psychological layer. Jekyll's remark about Lanyon's condemnation occurring partly in a dream underscores the intertwining of dreams and reality.
Psychoanalytic Grounding: Psychoanalytic readings, popular among readers, resonate with the dream-inspired origin of the novella, emphasizing the exploration of repressed desires and the complexities of the human mind.
Alternate Interpretations of Jekyll and Hyde
An Anti-Alcohol Morality Tale?
Another lens through which we can examine the novel is by considering it as a morality tale against alcoholism. In this interpretation, the 'transforming draught' symbolizes alcohol, portraying Jekyll's descent into a violent and unpredictable persona upon consumption. The recurring presence of wine throughout the novella, from Utterson's early sipping to Hyde's stash, hints at the transformative power of alcohol. Critics like Julia Reid have contested this interpretation for being speculative and reductionist, emphasizing its contested nature.
However, delving deeper into Jekyll's character, one might observe a parallel with Freudian psychoanalysis. Hyde's childlike demeanor raises questions about Jekyll's deep-seated desires to revert to a time before responsibility and maturity, echoing the formative period of early infancy, a central theme in Freudian psychology.
The 'Drugs' Interpretation
A parallel interpretation suggests that the 'draught' serves as a metaphor for various drugs, including opium or cocaine. The 1880s London context allows for the purchase of cocaine and opium from local chemists, raising questions about Stevenson's potential substance use during the writing process. This interpretation, an extension of the alcohol theme, faces similar challenges in terms of being overly restrictive. Jekyll's increasing reliance on the 'draught' or 'salt' adds complexity to this perspective.
Exploring the narrative from a post-Freudian standpoint reveals intriguing connections with psychoanalytic concepts. Hyde's violent actions against father figures align with Freud's Oedipus complex, emphasizing Jekyll's desire to escape the burdens of adult life and return to a time of impulse-driven freedom.
A Religious Analysis
Religious readings of Jekyll and Hyde find resonance in the references to Hyde as a 'devil' and a 'child of Hell,' coupled with numerous Biblical allusions. The novel's exploration of duality and morality aligns with themes present in James Hogg's earlier work, 'The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner' (1824). Stevenson, despite his atheism, grapples with Calvinistic doctrines inherited from his upbringing, and religious interpretations offer insights into the complex interplay of good and evil in the narrative.
The presence of dreams and dreamlike scenes, as well as the notion of Jekyll's creation originating from a dream, adds an intriguing layer. Stevenson's correspondence with F. W. H. Myers and his essay 'A Chapter on Dreams' provide glimpses into the psychological aspects of the story's creation, further enriching the religious and psychoanalytic dimensions.
Sexuality Interpretation of Jekyll and Hyde
The Exploration of Late Nineteenth-Century Sexuality
- Critics emphasize the absence of women in the narrative.
- The novella hints at the blackmail of homosexual acts.
- Elaine Showalter views the story as a 'fable of fin-de-siecle homosexual panic.'
- The narrative becomes an allegory for the double lives led by Victorian homosexuals.
- References to 'Black Mail House' and 'back way' gain significance against the backdrop of the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act.
A Darwinian Analysis
- Hyde represents the primal, animalistic origin of modern, civilized man.
- 'Apelike' references suggest an atavistic throwback to a more primitive human species.
- The analysis incorporates ideas of 'devolution' and late Victorian fears of degeneration.
- Jekyll's acknowledgment of 'lower elements in my soul' may echo Charles Darwin's concept of man's lowly origin.
- The narrative portrays man's repression of the darker, violent, and primitive side of his nature.
- The girl-trampling scene takes on significance in representing Hyde's brutalization of someone of the opposite sex.
- Despite various critical readings of the novella in relation to sex and sexuality, Stevenson denied that the work was about sexuality.
A Study in Hypocrisy?
- Stevenson suggests hypocrisy as the novella's theme.
- The duality in Jekyll's personality mirrors the dualistic nature of Victorian society.
- The narrative explores the need to appear respectable while hiding inward desires and lust.
- Similar to the psychoanalytic reading, it aligns with Stevenson's assertion that the story is about hypocrisy.
- Characters in the novella mask their private thoughts or desires from others.
- The narrative might reflect the class structure of late nineteenth-century Britain.
A Scientific Interpretation
- The evil maid exemplifies the continuum of respectable masks concealing hidden truths.
- Jekyll's scientific experiment mirrors society's physical embodiment of hiding true nature.
- Raises questions about the misuse of science in the narrative.
- The 'tincture' lends an air of scientific authenticity, making it science fiction rather than fantasy.
- Popularity of film adaptations may have skewed perceptions; story focuses on the transformation of Jekyll into Hyde.
All interpretations of Jekyll and Hyde can be proposed, given its polyvalent and ambiguous nature. The novella's popularity lies in its symbolism without a key and a riddle without a definitive answer.