The audience in literature refers to the individuals for whom a writer creates a piece of work, whether it's a novel, play, essay, or any other form of written or spoken expression. A writer or composer tailors their language, tone, and content to cater to the expectations, interests, and characteristics of their intended audience. The concept of audience is crucial in shaping the style and effectiveness of a literary work.
Examples of Audience in Literature
Example #1: "Fahrenheit 451" by Ray Bradbury
Ray Bradbury's novel "Fahrenheit 451" targets a broad audience, encompassing both adult and young adult readers. The story deals with themes of nuclear destruction, the conflict between nature and technology, and the impact of technology on society. It explores how technology can replace intellectualism, curiosity, literature, and even human relationships. Bradbury presents a future where technology dominates, and the government's treatment of its citizens reflects a dystopian society. This multifaceted narrative appeals to a wide range of readers due to its thought-provoking themes and timeless relevance.
Example #2: "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee
Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is narrated by the character Scout Finch, who reflects on her childhood from an adult perspective. The narrative unfolds through Scout's recollections, offering readers a unique dual perspective: that of a child experiencing events in real-time and that of an adult looking back on those experiences. This approach makes the story relatable and engaging for both child and adult audiences. It allows readers to view the events of Scout's childhood with the wisdom and insight of adulthood, enhancing their understanding of the narrative's themes and messages.
Example #3: "Animal Farm" by George Orwell
George Orwell's novella "Animal Farm" is primarily aimed at the general public, particularly readers in the former Soviet Union. Orwell uses the allegorical story to illustrate the dangers of communism and the consequences of political manipulation during World War II. By employing satire and allegory, Orwell transforms seemingly insignificant characters into significant historical figures, making the narrative accessible to a broad audience. His writing style and techniques are designed to convey complex political messages in an understandable and engaging manner, targeting both informed and general readers.
Example #4: "The Declaration of Independence" by Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin
"The Declaration of Independence" had multiple intended audiences: American colonists, the British government, and the global public. For American colonists, the document aimed to justify the need for a new nation and garner their support. It was widely distributed throughout the colonies to reach as many people as possible. The British government was also a target audience, as the document presented arguments for freedom and democracy in an attempt to win over some British Parliamentarians. Additionally, the declaration aimed to influence global opinion, especially in European nations opposed to the British. The document played a role in gaining support from American allies like Spain, France, and the Dutch Republic.
Function of Audience in Literature
The concept of audience in literature serves several important functions:
1. Style and Language: Writers adapt their writing style, language, and tone based on their understanding of the audience's expectations and preferences. This ensures that the work resonates with the intended readers and effectively communicates its message.
2. Level of Detail: Knowledge of the audience guides writers in determining the appropriate level of detail to include in their work. Writers must strike a balance between providing enough information for clarity and avoiding overwhelming or patronizing the readers.
3. Word Choices: The choice of words and vocabulary is tailored to suit the audience's familiarity with language. Writers select words that align with the readers' comprehension and communication abilities.
4. Emotional Connection: Understanding the audience allows writers to evoke specific emotions, elicit empathy, and create a deeper connection with readers. By addressing readers' interests and concerns, writers can engage them more effectively.
In summary, the audience is a crucial factor that shapes the writer's decisions throughout the creative process, from the choice of subject matter to the style of expression. It ensures that the work is relatable, meaningful, and impactful for its intended readers.