The term apologia, derived from the Greek root apologos, refers to a speech delivered in defense of someone or something. Its corresponding verb, apologeisthai, means to speak in defense. In literature, it signifies a formal written defense of someone's character or behavior. As a literary term, it represents a written apology that is more extensive than a concise formal apology and serves to defend an individual's position, often in a political context. During the early modern period, its meanings evolved to include expressions of seeking apology or expressing regret for actions regardless of their reasonability.
Techniques/Strategies of Apologia
There are four key strategies in an apologia, which are fundamental elements of a written defense:
- Denial: Denying, either directly or indirectly, any wrongdoing.
- Bolstering: Increasing the positive aspects of the person facing criticism or censure.
- Differentiation: Distinguishing the issue in question from others.
- Transcendence: Placing the act in its context to demonstrate its significance to the audience or readers.
Examples of Apologia in Literature
Let's explore some examples of apologia in literature:
Example #1: The Apology by Plato
"One thing I do ask and beg of you, gentlemen: if you hear me making my defence in the same kind of language as I am accustomed to use in the market place by the bankers’ tables, where many of you have heard me, and elsewhere, do not be surprised or create a disturbance on that account...for you to pay no attention to my manner of speech—be it better or worse—but to concentrate your attention on whether what I say is just or not..." (Plato)
In this passage from Plato's The Apology, Socrates defends himself during his trial. He uses denial, bolstering, and differentiation to exonerate himself from criminal allegations, emphasizing the importance of the content of his speech over its manner.
Example #2: The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco
"After that I made a living as a hack journalist...I had my first sexual experiences then, with a singer, in exchange for an indulgent write-up for a newspaper in Saluzzo." (Umberto Eco)
In The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco, the character Adso engages in apologia by explaining his actions as a writer. He uses this strategy to defend himself against judgments and present a denial to bolster his case for exoneration.
Example #3: Act 26 from New Testament
"This is the twenty sixth chapter of New Testament. It takes into account the entire period when Paul is thrown behind the bars in Caesarea. The term has been used by Paul to defend himself when he says, 'I make my defense' 26:2." (New Testament)
In the New Testament, Paul uses apologia in Acts 26 to defend himself during his imprisonment. The term "defense" is employed to signify his act of apologizing and seeking exoneration.
Example #4: Apologia Pro Vita Sua by John Henry Newman
"I cannot be sorry to have forced Mr. Kingsley to bring out in fulness his charges against me...I account it a gain to be surveyed from without by one who hates the principles which are nearest to my heart, has no personal knowledge of me to set right his misconceptions of my doctrine..." (John Henry Newman)
In his work Apologia Pro Vita Sua, John Henry Newman uses apologia to respond to charges made against him by Mr. Kingsley. He employs denial and differentiation to defend himself and clarify his beliefs.
Functions of Apologia
The primary function of apologia is to exonerate an individual from false accusations made by opponents. It is often presented as a treatise, speech, or essay and serves to show the public an alternative perspective to counter lies or truths circulating in society.
Let's Talk About It
Have you encountered any notable examples of apologia in literature or everyday life? Share them and discuss how they influenced your perception of defending one's character or actions.