Anti-climax is a literary device that can be defined as a situation where there is a letdown, or a sudden shift from an important idea to a trivial or absurd one in a piece of writing or discourse. It occurs when, at a particular moment, expectations are built up, and then suddenly something dull or disappointing happens. This can be thought of as a kind of "comedown" in the sequence of events or statements.
Types of Anti-Climax
There are two primary types of anti-climax. The first is used in narratives, where the entire plot takes an unexpected and often humorous turn towards something less significant. The second type is a figure of speech, which can occur anywhere within a story or discourse.
Examples of Anti-Climax in Literature
In literature, anti-climax is often used to create humor or to highlight the absurdity of a situation. Let's explore some examples:
Example #1: The Rape of the Lock (By Alexander Pope)
“Here thou, great Anna, whom three realms obey,
Dost sometimes counsel take, and sometimes tea…”
Here, Pope uses anti-climax as a figure of speech. He draws attention to the absurdity of Queen Anna's actions. While she holds important meetings, she also indulges in afternoon tea customs, creating a humorous contrast.
Example #2: The Deserted House (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
“Come away: for Life and Thought
Here no longer dwell;
But in a city glorious—
A great and distant city—have bought
A mansion incorruptible.
Would they could have stayed with us.”
In this poem, Tennyson presents an anti-climax in the last line. He transitions from describing the issues of life on Earth to referring to heaven as a "glorious city," shifting the focus from a profound theme to something more trivial.
Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
“Well, hurry up and confess. Be quick about it.
I’ll wait over here.
I don’t want to kill you before you’ve readied your soul.
No, I don’t want to send your soul to hell when I kill you…”
“Send me away, my lord, but don’t kill me…”
“It’s too late…”
Shakespeare uses narrative anti-climax when Othello suddenly stabs Desdemona. This unexpected turn creates a thrilling yet disappointing effect in the story.
Example #4: Much Ado About Nothing (By William Shakespeare)
“Why, then are you no maiden.— Leonato,
I am sorry you must hear. Upon mine honor,
Myself, my brother, and this grievèd count
Did see her, hear her, at that hour last night
Talk with a ruffian at her chamber window
Who hath indeed, most like a liberal villain,
Confessed the vile encounters they have had
A thousand times in secret.”
In this play, Hero is publicly denounced and humiliated at her wedding by her fiancé Claudio. The climax of the wedding turns into an anti-climax as Hero's chastity is challenged.
Example #5: Dr. Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
“Nay! Let me have one book more,
and then I have done, wherein I might see all plants, herbs, and trees that grow upon the earth.”
“Here they be.”
“O thou art deceived…”
Marlowe uses anti-climax as a figure of speech when Faustus, after seeking knowledge, realizes that it cannot bring him true happiness. This serves as a warning about the consequences of pursuing shallow rewards.
Example #6: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
“In a moment, the whole company was on their feet. That somebody was assassinated by somebody vindicating a difference of opinion was the likeliest occurrence. Everybody looked to see somebody fall, but only saw a man and a woman standing staring at each other; the man with all the outward aspect of a Frenchman and a thorough Republican; the woman, evidently English.”
In this excerpt, everybody is expecting that somebody has been killed, or someone has fallen down dead. However, there is only a man and woman standing there, staring at each other. This is a disappointing anti-climax.
Function of Anti-Climax
- Generally, anti-climax produces a ludicrous or comic effect.
- When employed intentionally, it devalues the subject, often for satirical or humorous purposes.
- It is frequently used in literature and media to create humor by subverting expectations.
- Sometimes, when used unintentionally, it can undermine the emotional impact of a story, which is known as "bathos."
Let's Talk About It
Now that we've explored the concept of anti-climax in literature, let's discuss its impact. Have you come across any instances of anti-climax in your reading or in movies? How did it affect your engagement with the story? Share your thoughts in the comments below.Free Courses