Tennessee Williams, born Thomas Lanier Williams III, was a renowned American playwright and author. He entered the world on March 26, 1911, in Columbus, Mississippi, USA. His father, Cornelius Coffin Williams, worked as a traveling shoe salesman, while his mother, Edwina Dakin, was a music teacher. Due to his father's constant travels, Tennessee spent his early years at his maternal grandparents' home. Unfortunately, his father's turbulent behavior and alcoholism cast a shadow of dysfunction over the family, depriving them of love and tenderness. Williams also battled serious illnesses during his youth, an experience that would later influence his successful literary career, as he drew from his childhood and family background.
Tennessee began his formal education at Soldan High School and later attended University City High School. After completing his high school studies, he enrolled at the University of Missouri in Columbia with an initial focus on journalism. However, he soon discovered that journalism was not his true calling. He redirected his passion toward literature and writing, actively submitting his literary works to contests. Subsequently, he joined the University of Missouri, where he spent three years, although he did not complete his military training course. Frustrated by his academic pursuits, his father removed him from university and secured him a job at a shoe company. Discontent with the monotonous job, Tennessee suffered a nervous breakdown and lost the position. In 1936, he reenrolled at Washington University, where he became involved with a writers' group, further fueling his dedication to writing.
Awards and Honors
Tennessee's distinctive writing style and profound literary ideas garnered him numerous awards and honors from various institutions. He received the Group Theatre Prize in 1939 and the Sidney Harvard Memorial Award in 1945. Two Drama Critic Circle Awards followed, with the first in 1945 and the second in 1948. His achievements also include two Pulitzer Prizes, awarded in 1948 and 1955, as well as two Tony Awards for his plays "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" and "The Night of the Iguana."
Key Facts about Tennessee
- He is renowned for his works "A Streetcar Named Desire" and "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof."
- Williams won two Pulitzer Prizes and received numerous Tony Award nominations.
- Tennessee Williams passed away on February 25, 1983, in New York City.
Tennessee Williams began translating his experiences, emotions, and ideas into words at a young age, establishing himself as a writer within literary circles. At the age of sixteen, he published his first essay, "Can a Good Wife Be a Good Sport?," in an American literary magazine, earning third prize. Subsequently, he contributed his short story "The Vengeance of Nitocris" to "Weird Tales," an American fantasy fiction magazine. Regrettably, these early publications did not bring significant success.
However, his later works, including "The Glass Menagerie," "Portrait of a Girl in Glass," and "A Streetcar Named Desire," catapulted him to literary fame. His noteworthy repertoire also comprises "The Rose Tattoo," "Sweet Bird of Youth," and "Orpheus Descending."
Tennessee Williams, one of the most celebrated playwrights of the 20th century, is renowned for his humorous, intriguing, and poignant writing style. Simultaneously criticizing and glorifying American culture, he employs lucid, plain, and straightforward language alongside theatrical techniques, enabling audiences to distinguish between fantasy and reality. His central characters are primarily women who grapple with extreme trauma, anxiety, or disorder, such as Laura in "The Glass Menagerie," Maggie in "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof," and Blanche in "A Streetcar Named Desire." Williams frequently employs foreshadowing, imagery, symbolism, and other rhetorical devices in his works.
Notable Works by Tennessee Williams
- Best Plays: "The Seven Descents of Myrtle," "The Summer and Smoke," "Something Cloudy, Something Clear," "The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore," "I Rise in Flame, Cried the Phoenix," and "Candles to the Sun."
- Other Works: In addition to his plays, Williams authored various other remarkable pieces, including "The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone," "Moise and the World of Reason," "The Vengeance of Nitocris," "The Field of Blue Children," "The Important Thing," "The Night of the Iguana," and "The Yellow Bird."
Tennessee Williams' Impact on Future Literature
Tennessee Williams, hailed as the greatest American playwright, witnessed the fruits of his labor flourishing during his lifetime. His enduring theatrical legacy continues to be celebrated and performed years after his passing. Williams' works are notable not only for challenging prevailing societal perspectives on sexism but also for depicting the guilt and repression he observed in his surroundings. Despite facing criticism, he inspired countless theater artists and playwrights.
"I don't want realism. I want magic! Yes, yes, magic!...
let me be damned for it!" - (From "A Streetcar Named Desire")
"We all live in a house on fire, no fire department to call;...
house down with us trapped, locked in it." - (From "The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore")
"Yes, I have tricks in my pocket, I have things up my sleeve...
truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion." - (From "The Glass Menagerie")
"Physical beauty is passing – a transitory possession –...
grow! Increase with the years!" - (From "A Streetcar Named Desire")