Reported Speech: Direct & Indirect Narration Made Easy

Reported speech is used when you want to tell someone else what a person said before. The tense in reported speech is usually one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech.

I/you/we/they change to He/she/it/James

Present simple (converts to past simple)

  • Example: "I go shopping every Friday," my mom said. (My mom said that she went shopping every Friday.)
  • Example: "I love chocolate," he told me. (He told me that he loved chocolate.)
  • Example: "They enjoy playing tennis," we said. (We said that they enjoyed playing tennis.)

Present continuous (converts to past continuous)

  • Example: "We are watching TV," they told me. (They told me that they were watching TV.)
  • Example: "He is studying for his exams," she said. (She said that he was studying for his exams.)
  • Example: "James is working on a new project," his manager mentioned. (His manager mentioned that James was working on a new project.)

Present perfect (converts to past perfect)

  • Example: "I have lived here for 10 years," David said. (David said that he had lived there for 10 years.)
  • Example: "She has visited Paris many times," he told me. (He told me that she had visited Paris many times.)
  • Example: "They have finished their homework," the teacher said. (The teacher said that they had finished their homework.)

Past simple (converts to past perfect)

  • Example: "I was at school yesterday," my sister said. (My sister said that she had been at school the day before.)
  • Example: "He bought a new car last week," he told me. (He told me that he had bought a new car the previous week.)
  • Example: "They went to the beach on Saturday," their mom mentioned. (Their mom mentioned that they had gone to the beach on Saturday.)

Past continuous (converts to past perfect continuous)

  • Example: "We were cooking when she came," they told me. (They told me that they had been cooking when she came.)
  • Example: "He was reading a book while waiting," she said. (She said that he had been reading a book while waiting .)
  • Example: "They were playing basketball in the park," their coach mentioned. (Their coach mentioned that they had been playing basketball in the park.)

Past perfect (remains the same)

  • Example: "I had had a car accident," Mary told me. (Mary told me that she had had a car accident.)
  • Example: "He had already left when I arrived," she said. (She said that he had already left when she arrived.)
  • Example: "They had finished their dinner before the movie started," the waiter mentioned. (The waiter mentioned that they had finished their dinner before the movie started.)

Present perfect continuous (converts to past perfect continuous)

  • Example: "I have been explaining to her for hours," Jim said. (Jim said that he had been explaining to her for hours.)
  • Example: "She has been working on this project all day," he told me. (He told me that she had been working on that project all day.)
  • Example: "They have been waiting for the bus since morning," the passengers said. (The passengers said that they had been waiting for the bus since morning.)

Simple future with WILL (converts to future in the past)

  • Example: "I will travel to Asia next year," my cousin told me. (My cousin told me that she would travel to Asia the following year.)
  • Example: "She will call you later," he said. (He said that she would call me later.)
  • Example: "They will arrive tomorrow," the manager informed us. (The manager informed us that they would arrive the next day.)
Grammar Lab

Post a Comment

Cookie Consent
We serve cookies on this site to analyze traffic, remember your preferences, and optimize your experience.
Oops!
It seems there is something wrong with your internet connection. Please connect to the internet and start browsing again.
AdBlock Detected!
We have detected that you are using adblocking plugin in your browser.
The revenue we earn by the advertisements is used to manage this website, we request you to whitelist our website in your adblocking plugin.
Site is Blocked
Sorry! This site is not available in your country.