Pathos, a literary device rooted in the Greek word for "suffering" or "experience," is a powerful tool designed to stir emotions in readers. Originating from the teachings of Aristotle, pathos serves as a mode of persuasion, aiming to sway opinions by tapping into human emotions. It works because emotions, at times, can be overwhelming, even overriding logic and reason.
The Role of Pathos in Literature
Pathos plays a vital role in literature, rhetoric, and various forms of writing. Literature, as an art form, aims to invoke feelings in readers. When effectively employed, pathos not only elicits emotions but also provides a deeper understanding of existence. For instance, in John Donne's poem "No Man Is an Island," pathos appeals to the emotions of acceptance, belonging, and empathy:
"No man is an island,
Entire of itself,
Every man is a piece of the continent,
A part of the main.
If a clod be washed away by the sea,
Europe is the less.
As well as if a promontory were.
As well as if a manor of thy friend's
Or of thine own were:
Any man's death diminishes me,
Because I am involved in mankind,
And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for thee."
Donne's use of pathos connects readers with the themes of unity and empathy, evoking feelings of grief and sympathy for all who die because each loss is a loss for humanity.
Emotions Evoked by Pathos
Pathos possesses the power to evoke a wide range of emotions in literature, including but not limited to:
Pathos in Advertising
Advertisers frequently employ pathos to elicit emotional reactions from their audience, encouraging them to take action, such as making a purchase. Here are some examples of pathos in advertisements:
- A television commercial depicting neglected animals to evoke sympathy.
- Political ads using fear tactics to provoke a response.
- Holiday commercials showing families coming together, evoking feelings of warmth and nostalgia.
- Cologne commercials featuring sexual tension to create desire.
- Diaper ads with crying babies, appealing to parental instincts.
- Cleaning product ads featuring messy homes and frustrated homeowners, stirring feelings of frustration and the need for a solution.
- Jewelry commercials showcasing marriage proposals, evoking emotions of love and commitment.
- Insurance ads displaying car accidents to generate concern and prompt action.
- Toy commercials depicting children playing together, inspiring a desire for fun and camaraderie.
- Makeup commercials showing a woman receiving attention, creating a desire for beauty and confidence.
Pathos in Famous Movie Lines
Many iconic movie lines employ pathos to evoke emotional reactions in viewers. Here are some famous examples:
- "Love means never having to say you're sorry." - Love Story
- "The jail you planned for me is the one you're gonna rot in." - The Color Purple
- "I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore." - Network
- "The marks humans leave are too often scars." - The Fault in Our Stars
- "I have to remind myself that some birds aren't meant to be caged." - The Shawshank Redemption
- "And just like that, she was gone, out of my life again." - Forrest Gump
- "There are two types of people in the world: The people who naturally excel at life. And the people who hope all those people die in a big explosion." - The Edge of Being Seventeen
- "You have to get through your fear to see the beauty on the other side." - The Good Dinosaur
- "Hate never solved nothing, but calm did. And thought did. Try it. Try it just for a change." - Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
- "Things change, friends leave. And life doesn't stop for anybody." - The Perks of Being a Wallflower
Pathos in Literary Rhetoric
Pathos, along with logos and ethos, is one of the three forms of rhetoric outlined by Aristotle. While pathos appeals to emotions, logos appeals to logic, and ethos appeals to ethics and credibility. The art of persuasive communication requires a balanced use of these appeals to create a compelling argument.
Effect of Pathos on Logos
Logos relies on logic, while pathos taps into emotions. Combining the two can result in a convincing and emotionally resonant argument. Not everyone is swayed solely by logic, making pathos a valuable addition to persuade effectively.
Effect of Pathos on Ethos
Ethos, rooted in ethics and credibility, is a potent rhetorical device on its own. However, when infused with pathos, it becomes even more compelling. For instance, Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech effectively combined ethos and pathos, enhancing both trust and emotional connection with the audience.
Building Arguments with Pathos
When incorporating pathos into arguments, consider these strategies:
- Identify events or experiences that resonate with your audience emotionally.
- Evaluate how your audience responds to the emotional weight of a situation.
- Begin with ethos and gradually introduce pathos, ensuring a balanced approach.
- Remember that pathos should complement logos and ethos, not overpower them.
Avoiding the Fallacy of Excessive Emotion
While pathos is a potent rhetorical tool, excessive emotional manipulation can lead to the fallacy of emotion. Audiences may lose interest if their emotions are targeted excessively. To avoid this, combine pathos with veracity, use it in conjunction with ethos and logos, and maintain a balanced approach.
Three Characteristics of Effective Pathos
Pathos, when employed effectively, exhibits the following characteristics:
- Relevance to the target audience, conveyed through simple and powerful language.
- A clear intent to achieve a specific purpose, such as persuasion or emotional connection.
- Avoidance of excessive emotional manipulation, preventing it from becoming fallacious pathos.
Synonyms of Pathos
While pathos has related synonyms such as tragedy, sadness, pitifulness, piteousness, sorrowfulness, lugubrious, poignant, and poignancy, these terms convey slightly different meanings but share distant connections with the concept of pathos.