An appositive is a grammatical structure where a noun or word is followed by another noun or phrase that renames or identifies it. It can appear before or after a noun or noun phrase and is always used with a comma. Essentially, it's a noun or noun phrase that defines or explains another noun that it follows.
Types of Appositive
A restrictive appositive provides essential information to identify the phrase or noun it renames. Removing the appositive would change the meaning of the sentence. Commas are not necessarily used in this type of appositive. For example: "John's friend, Michael, likes chocolates." Here, the statement is restricted to only Michael.
A non-restrictive appositive gives non-essential or extra information that is not crucial for identifying the phrase or noun it renames. This type of appositive is often used with commas. For example: "John, my friend, likes to eat chocolates." Here, "my friend" is non-restrictive because it is not necessary for identifying John.
Examples of Appositive in Literature
Example #1: A Christmas Memory (By Truman Capote)
"Christmas Eve afternoon we scrape together a nickel and go to the butcher's to buy Queenie's traditional gift, a good gnawable beef bone."
In this example, a restrictive appositive clarifies and describes the noun "traditional gift," specifying the type of gift.
Example #2: Bronx Primitive (By Kate Simon)
"Though her cheeks were high-colored and her teeth strong and yellow, she looked like a mechanical woman, a machine with flashing, glassy circles for eyes."
Here, the noun "mechanical woman" is defined and identified by a long noun phrase, a restrictive appositive, which enhances the meaning of the sentence.
Example #3: The Pride of the Yankees (By Gary Cooper as Lou Gehrig)
"I have had the great honor to have played with these great veteran ballplayers on my left –Murderers Row, our championship team of 1927."
Gehrig uses a restrictive appositive, "Murderers Row," to identify the noun "ballplayers" and add significance to the sentence.
Example #4: Inside Cape Town (By Joshua Hammer)
"The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Africa's only nuclear power plant, was inaugurated in 1984 by the apartheid regime and is the major source of electricity for the Western Cape's 4.5 million population."
In this example, an appositive is used immediately after the noun phrase "Nuclear power station" to provide additional information, serving as a non-restrictive appositive.
Example #5: Beauty: When the Other Dancer is the Self (By Alice Walker)
"My father, a fat, funny man with beautiful eyes and a subversive wit, is trying to decide which of his eight children he will take with him to the county fair."
This example demonstrates a non-restrictive appositive, where the noun "father" is described by the noun phrase "a fat, funny man ... and a subversive wit."
Function of Appositive
The function of an appositive in literary works is to provide information, whether essential or additional. It clarifies and defines nouns, contributes to sentence structure, and adds variety to the text by allowing for sentences of varied lengths. Ultimately, appositives enhance the reading experience by providing interesting details and maintaining a smooth flow of the narrative.
Let's Discuss Appositives
Have you come across any memorable appositives in literature or other forms of writing that you found particularly impactful or creative? How do appositives contribute to your understanding of the text? Share your thoughts and examples in the comments below.