Blank verse is a literary device characterized by unrhymed verse composed in iambic pentameter. In both poetry and prose, it maintains a consistent meter, consisting of 10 syllables in each line (pentameter), where unstressed syllables are followed by stressed ones. It features five stressed syllables per line and lacks rhyme, hence its alternative name, "unrhymed iambic pentameter."
Key Features of Blank Verse
- Blank verse does not adhere to a fixed number of lines.
- It employs a conventional meter commonly used in verse drama and lengthy narrative poems.
- Blank verse is often utilized in descriptive and reflective poetry as well as dramatic monologues, where a single character expresses their thoughts in speech form.
- It can be composed using various metrical patterns, such as iambic, trochaic, spondaic, and dactylic.
Types of Blank Verse Poetry
- Iambic pentameter blank verse: Follows the pattern of unstressed/stressed syllables.
- Trochaic blank verse: Adheres to the stressed/unstressed syllables pattern.
- Anapestic blank verse: Features unstressed/unstressed/stressed syllables.
- Dactylic blank verse: Comprises stressed/unstressed/unstressed syllables.
Short Examples of Blank Verse
Here are some brief examples of blank verse:
The Dreams are clues that tell us take chances.
The source of faith in happiness and
Daylight changes, and it is time to take
The Night frost drips silently from the roof
If passports are passwords to the heaven above,
then we shall read the Riddle
If there is a twelfth player, who does not play,
He only leaves the field when free.
Origins of Blank Verse
Blank verse, often referred to as heroic verse, initially emerged in Italy during the 16th century and was introduced to English literature by Henry Howard, the Earl of Surrey. It has its roots in the blend of poetry and prose used in ancient Greek plays by playwrights like Aeschylus and Sophocles. Henry Howard employed blank verse in his translation of "Aeneid," and its popularity further surged when John Milton used it in "Paradise Lost," solidifying its status as a prominent poetic technique.
Popularity of Blank Verse
The popularity of blank verse can be attributed to two primary factors. Firstly, its use in expressing elevated styles and grand thematic ideas made it an ideal verse style for such writing. Secondly, its metrical pattern, devoid of rhyme, contributed to its appeal. Milton's "Paradise Lost" played a significant role in elevating the status of blank verse, and its incorporation by Shakespeare in his plays further solidified its popularity.
Characteristics of Blank Verse
Some key characteristics of blank verse include:
- Prevalent use in plays and epic poetry.
- Lack of a specific rhyme scheme.
- Adherence to iambic pentameter, with one unstressed and one stressed syllable.
- Suitability for conveying grand themes.
- Appropriateness for dramatic monologues with elevated language and style.
Differences Between Blank Verse and Free Verse
Blank verse differs from free verse in two major ways:
- Blank verse adheres to iambic pentameter, while free verse follows no specific meter.
- Blank verse is often employed for conveying grand or serious themes, whereas free verse can be used for any theme.
Both, however, do not utilize rhyme schemes.
Examples of Blank Verse from Literature
Several renowned poets and dramatists have employed blank verse in their works. Here are some examples:
Example #1: "Mending Walls" by Robert Frost
Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun;
Function of Blank Verse
Blank verse, rooted in Latin and Greek sources, is widely used in English dramatic poetry and prose to create a sense of grandeur. It shares similarities with natural speech but follows specific patterns, including pauses. The aim is to establish a formal rhythmic structure that generates a musical effect, capturing the attention of both readers and listeners.