A biography is a non-fiction written account of a person's life, aiming to provide an objective portrayal, usually in the third person. Biographers gather information from various sources, including the subject, acquaintances, and research materials. Biographies offer readers a true and authentic depiction of the biographical subject's life.
Biographies can be written about both living and deceased individuals. However, biographers face limitations, particularly in accessing the subject's thoughts and feelings.
Biographical works typically cover significant life events, including childhood, education, career, and relationships. Occasionally, biographies are adapted into other art forms, such as films or theatrical productions, to reach a wider audience. A prime example is the musical "Hamilton," based on Alexander Hamilton's biography, which became a Broadway sensation.
Common Biographical Subjects
Biographies can feature a wide range of subjects, not limited to famous individuals. They often focus on people who have made significant contributions, overcome extraordinary challenges, or led unique lives. Here are some common examples of biographical subjects:
- Political leaders
- Historical figures
- Serial killers
- Notorious individuals
- Political activists
- Religious leaders
- Military leaders
- Cultural figures
Biographies serve to educate, inspire, and connect readers with the lives and stories of individuals.
Famous Examples of Biographical Works
While biographies often cater to readers interested in specific subjects, some gain widespread recognition due to their compelling narratives or unique subjects. Here are examples of famous biographical works that have reached a broader audience:
- "Alexander Hamilton" by Ron Chernow
- "Prairie Fires: The American Dreams of Laura Ingalls Wilder" by Caroline Fraser
- "Steve Jobs" by Walter Isaacson
- "Churchill: A Life" by Martin Gilbert
- "The Professor and the Madman: A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary" by Simon Winchester
- "A Beautiful Mind" by Sylvia Nasar
- "The Black Rose" by Tananarive Due
- "John Adams" by David McCullough
- "Into the Wild" by Jon Krakauer
- "John Brown" by W.E.B. Du Bois
- "Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo" by Hayden Herrera
- "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks" by Rebecca Skloot
- "Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln" by Doris Kearns Goodwin
- "Shirley Jackson: A Rather Haunted Life" by Ruth Franklin
- "The Stranger in the Woods: The Extraordinary Story of the Last True Hermit" by Michael Finkel
These biographies have appealed to readers beyond the usual biography enthusiasts, either due to the subjects' remarkable stories or the compelling storytelling.
Comparing Biography, Autobiography, and Memoir
Biography, autobiography, and memoir are distinct forms of life narratives. While they share similarities, they differ in terms of writing style, perspective, and purpose.
Biography: A biographical work is a factual narrative of an individual's life, typically written by someone other than the subject. It aims to provide an objective portrayal.
Autobiography: An autobiography is the life story of an individual, written by that individual. It is presented in the first person and offers a subjective perspective.
Memoir: Memoirs are collections of a person's significant memories, often written by the person themselves. They focus on meaningful stories and reflection, offering an emotional connection with the reader.
Examples of Literary Biography
Literary biography is a subset of biography that explores the lives of writers and artists. It presents unique challenges as it must balance biographical elements with the examination of the subject's literary works. Here are examples of well-known literary biographies:
Example 1: "Savage Beauty: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay" by Nancy Milford
This passage showcases how Milford characterizes Edna St. Vincent Millay's interactions with her sister, revealing a personal side of the poet that readers may not have been aware of.
Example 2: "The Invisible Woman: The Story of Nelly Ternan and Charles Dickens" by Claire Tomalin
This literary biography delves into Charles Dickens' complex relationship with Nelly Ternan, shedding light on the complications it brought to his personal and professional life.
Example 3: "Virginia Woolf" by Hermione Lee
This passage from Hermione Lee's biography of Virginia Woolf discusses the challenges of writing a literary biography and the dynamic between the author and biographical subject.
Literary biographies provide insights into writers' lives, offering readers a deeper understanding of the authors and the contexts in which they produced their literary works.