The Little Vagabond, William Blake: Summary & Analysis

"The Little Vagabond" by William Blake is a poem that criticizes the hypocrisy and moral rigidity of the church while advocating for a more joyful and inclusive approach to spirituality. Through the voice of a child, Blake presents a vision of a world where people can find warmth, happiness, and connection in places like the alehouse, rather than feeling cold and unwelcome in the church.

The Little Vagabond by William Blake

Dear mother, dear mother, the Church is cold;
But the Alehouse is healthy, and pleasant, and warm.
Besides, I can tell where I am used well;
The poor parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell.
But, if at the Church they would give us some ale,
And a pleasant fire our souls to regale,
We’d sing and we’d pray all the livelong day,
Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray.
Then the Parson might preach, and drink, and sing,
And we’d be as happy as birds in the spring;
And modest Dame Lurch, who is always at church,
Would not have bandy children, nor fasting, nor birch.
And God, like a father, rejoicing to see
His children as pleasant and happy as he,
Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the barrel,
But kiss him, and give him both drink and apparel.

Critical Analysis

In "The Little Vagabond," Blake highlights the contrast between the cold and unwelcoming atmosphere of the church and the warmth, pleasure, and inclusivity found in the alehouse. The child speaker's perspective challenges the conventional notions of piety and righteousness often associated with religious institutions. The poem calls attention to the hypocrisy of religious leaders who appear inflated with self-importance ("parsons with wind like a blown bladder swell") and suggests that they prioritize their own comfort over the spiritual needs of the people.

The child's critique of the church's austerity and lack of compassion is juxtaposed with the vision of a more joyful and harmonious alternative. The child imagines a scenario where churchgoers can enjoy both spiritual practices and simple pleasures like singing, praying, and even drinking ale. The child believes that such an approach would make people as happy as birds in spring, fostering a sense of unity and contentment.

Blake's poem ultimately envisions a world where God is not seen as an authoritarian figure but as a loving father who wants to see his children happy. The poem suggests that God's desire is not to quarrel with the Devil or impose strict rules, but to foster joy, connection, and well-being among humanity.

Themes of the Poem

  • Critique of Institutional Religion: The poem critiques the cold and austere nature of organized religion and its detachment from the true needs and desires of people.
  • Inclusivity and Joy: The poem advocates for a more inclusive and joyful approach to spirituality, where people can find warmth, community, and pleasure.
  • Hypocrisy: The poem exposes the hypocrisy of religious leaders who prioritize their own comforts and status over the well-being of their congregation.

Stylistic Analysis

  • Voice of a Child: The child speaker's innocence and candidness add a poignant and critical perspective to the poem.
  • Contrast: The poem employs contrast between the church and the alehouse, as well as between the conventional view of God and the alternative vision presented.
  • Irony: The irony lies in the child's assertion that the alehouse is "healthy" compared to the church, challenging societal norms and expectations.


  • Critique and Discontent: The child speaker expresses discontent with the church's lack of warmth and compassion, advocating for an alternative approach.
  • Desire for Joy: The child longs for a more joyful and inclusive experience of spirituality, where people can sing, pray, and be happy.


  • Metaphor and Imagery: The alehouse and the church are used metaphorically to symbolize different approaches to spirituality and human connection.
  • Repetition: The repetition of the phrase "Dear mother, dear mother" emphasizes the child's voice and urgency in conveying their message.

Sound Devices

  • Rhyme Scheme: The poem follows an AABBCC rhyme scheme, contributing to its rhythmic and musical quality.
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