Misery, Anton Chekhov: Summary & Analysis

Anton Chekhov, a prolific short story writer and dramatist, is renowned for his wit and keen observations of human nature. His characters are often based on real people, and his stories serve as a commentary on human behavior and emotions.

One of Chekhov's compelling stories, 'Misery,' delves into the theme of human insensitivity towards the suffering of others. It portrays the anguish of an elderly man who has recently lost his son and seeks to express his grief but finds no one willing to listen. The story sheds light on the indifference of the world towards his pain.

Summary of Misery by Anton Chekhov

'Misery' follows the emotional journey of a grief-stricken father who mourns the loss of his son. His heart is heavy with sorrow, and he longs to share his anguish to ease his oppressive misery. However, he is met with a lack of empathy from those around him. The narrative beautifully captures the elderly man's struggle to find an outlet for his pain, the frustration of being unable to connect with others, and his ultimate attempt to confide in his sole companion, his horse.

Descent into Darkness

The story begins on a dark evening, where the setting is vividly depicted with shades of darkness and the contrast of white snow. Though voices fill the air, no one is visible, emphasizing the protagonist's isolation. Iona Potapov, an elderly man consumed by rage and despair, appears like a ghost amidst the darkness. His horse stands motionless by his side. Despite the presence of others, Iona's loneliness is palpable, mirroring the darkness within his soul.

Encounters of Contrast

As Iona's horse-drawn sledge moves through the night, it encounters different passengers. The first is a youthful and energetic army officer, sharply contrasting Iona's weariness. Oblivious to the old man's grief, the officer remains disinterested in his attempts to share his pain.

The second group of passengers consists of three boisterous young men, seemingly carefree and, perhaps, under the influence. Their indifference towards Iona's anguish adds to his misery. Despite his sadness, Iona treats his horse with compassion, while the passengers show little regard for him.

The Unseen Misery

Iona's grief remains hidden, unseen by those around him. His pain seems boundless, as if it could flood the entire world if only someone could understand its intensity. The brief moments of connection he finds with the revelers provide only fleeting solace, leaving him alone again with his sorrow. Even his attempt to speak to a young cab driver fails to find a receptive ear.

An Unspoken Bond

In the final scene, Iona is left alone with his mare. He confides in her, mentioning his son's name for the first time. Though the horse does not respond verbally, its gentle gaze offers comfort to Iona. In that unsaid moment, he believes he has found a sympathetic companion to share his pain.

The story concludes with ambiguity, leaving us to wonder if the horse truly understood Iona's grief or if it was merely a projection of his emotions. Regardless, 'Misery' underscores the lack of empathy and connection among humans, who often remain indifferent to the suffering of others.


'Misery' by Anton Chekhov serves as a poignant reminder of the importance of empathy and compassion towards others. Through Iona's heart-wrenching experience, the story urges us to be more attentive to the pain of those around us, offering them a listening ear and a caring heart in times of sorrow.

Analysis of Misery by Anton Chekhov

Anton Chekhov's "Misery" offers a poignant portrayal of the human condition within an urban context. The story highlights the inherent nature of human beings to remain indifferent to the misfortunes of others unless they directly impact their lives. Throughout the narrative, the author contemplates the sense of loneliness that pervades the bustling existence of city life. The title "Misery" not only reflects the protagonist's current emotional state but also serves as a symbol for various forms of suffering experienced in the city.

The encounters Iona has with other characters in the story reveal a lack of sympathy, kindness, warmth, and camaraderie in the urban environment. The bustling city seems to isolate people, leaving them preoccupied with their own daily struggles and oblivious to the pain of others. The only meaningful connection Iona finds is with his horse, with whom he shares his emotional burden.

A Marxist Critique of Society

One can interpret "Misery" as a representation of a Marxist critique of society. Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto views capitalism as a system that divides society into the wealthy and the poor, alienating and corrupting individuals with its focus on material possessions. In this context, Iona becomes a victim of capitalism, as he is a poor sledge driver who feels estranged from the rest of the city's population, engrossed in their daily routines.

Iona Potapov's Plight

Iona Potapov, an elderly sledge driver in a Russian city, is grieving the recent loss of his son and yearns to express his sorrow. He is worn and heartbroken by the death of his young child, feeling that he would have rather died in his son's place. The need to earn a living and provide for himself and his horse drives him to venture out into the cold, working despite his emotional turmoil. Struggling with profound loneliness, he attempts to connect with his passengers, hoping to find some solace in conversation.

Indifference and Disconnection

Throughout the story, Iona's attempts to communicate his pain to others are met with indifference and disconnection. Passengers show little interest in his personal life, focusing solely on their own needs and destinations. Even when he tries to share his grief, the responses are dismissive, leaving Iona feeling more isolated and abandoned.

A Heartfelt Confession

Unable to contain his sorrow any longer, Iona seeks refuge in the solitude of his yard, where he finally unburdens his soul to his horse. In this poignant moment, he finds a sense of release as he shares his emotions with his only companion, the horse. The horse becomes a silent listener to his pain, offering Iona a moment of connection and understanding that he fails to find with other people in the city.


"Misery" by Anton Chekhov masterfully portrays the emotional struggle and isolation experienced by an individual in the bustling and indifferent urban environment. It serves as a reflection on human nature and society's tendency to prioritize personal concerns over empathizing with the suffering of others. The story's emotional depth and exploration of themes make it a timeless and thought-provoking piece of literature.

How many times does the word 'misery' appear in the story?

The word 'misery' appears five times in the latter half of the story, and on one occasion, it is used as an adjective 'miserable.'

How does the old man find the others on his sledge?

The old man, Iona Potapov, is a sledge driver, and the others on his sledge are the passengers he carries. However, these passengers show little interest or sympathy for him and are preoccupied with their own concerns, not willing to listen to his tale of grief.

What is the significance of the word 'misery' in the context of the story's title?

The word 'misery' is highly significant as it encapsulates the predominant mood of the story. It reflects the overwhelming grief of Iona Potapov, the old sledge driver, over the loss of his son and his futile attempts to share his pain with the passengers in his sledge. The title 'Misery' perfectly portrays the emotional distress and suffering experienced by Iona. His sorrow and loneliness intensify as he fails to find a sympathetic ear among the people he encounters. The word 'misery' becomes relevant in the latter part of the story when his grief turns into a profound sense of misery due to the lack of understanding and empathy from others. Misery, in this context, represents not just physical suffering but also the emotional agony of a heart that longs to be heard and comforted. The story highlights the human condition, showing how genuine emotional distress can only be alleviated through compassionate human connection and empathy from others.

Post a Comment

Cookie Consent
We serve cookies on this site to analyze traffic, remember your preferences, and optimize your experience.
It seems there is something wrong with your internet connection. Please connect to the internet and start browsing again.
AdBlock Detected!
We have detected that you are using adblocking plugin in your browser.
The revenue we earn by the advertisements is used to manage this website, we request you to whitelist our website in your adblocking plugin.
Site is Blocked
Sorry! This site is not available in your country.