W.H. Auden, much like his contemporary T.S. Eliot, captured the essence of his era within his poetry. To truly grasp Auden's literary contributions, it is imperative to delve into the prevailing literary and societal trends of the 1930s and 1940s—periods during which Auden reached his artistic zenith. This exploration allows us to unearth the social backdrop against which Auden's poetry gained meaning and significance. This discussion will delve into the economic, political, and social contexts that shaped the poetry of the 20th century.
The Impact of New Psychology
The 20th century ushered in a revolutionary understanding of human psychology, largely due to the influence of Sigmund Freud and his followers. Freud's theories exposed how repressed sexual instincts underlie much of the neurosis and abnormal behavior prevalent in society. This era was marked by a pervasive atmosphere of perplexity, confusion, and anxiety. Freud's emphasis on the unconscious mind highlighted that human behavior is often influenced more by hidden forces than by rational thought. Emotional needs became the driving force behind intellectual convictions, reshaping the way society understood rationality and emotion. This recognition that humans are not purely rational beings has had a profound impact on moral attitudes, particularly in matters of sexuality. Freud's theories, including the Oedipus Complex, ignited a sensation that reverberated in the literary works of the 20th century. This era began to prioritize feelings and intuition as tools for genuine understanding over mere intellectual analysis.
Science and Rationalism
The 20th century introduced a shift in focus from philosophical musings about the nature of God to a keen interest in the study of human nature. Freud's perspective presented man as a biological entity driven by instincts and impulses. Concurrently, Marxist thought emerged, viewing man as a product of economic and social forces. The rise of rationalism encouraged the exploration of human nature through the lens of science. Traditional ideas such as nationalism faced criticism, and the notion of imperialism transformed from pride to guilt. Authors like E.M. Forster advocated for equality and empathetic connections between nations and individuals. This shift in perspective signaled a new era of examining human nature and social dynamics.
Reevaluation of Sex and Authority
The advent of modern psychology disrupted conventional views of human behavior and relationships. The Oedipus Complex theory, in particular, reshaped perceptions of private and familial interactions. Victorian ideals about sexuality began to crumble in the face of evolving psychological understanding. The roles of the sexes underwent transformation, challenging the notion of male superiority. T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" serves as a testament to the heightened awareness of shifting gender dynamics within the tumultuous environment of 20th-century urban life.
Tensions and frustrations exacerbated in the aftermath of World War I. The post-war response was a general skepticism towards authority. This era witnessed a rising tide of revolt against traditional sources of authority, leading to cynicism, disillusionment, and religious skepticism. The focus of human interest shifted from external experiences to introspection. Neurosis and spiritual despondency became commonplace, compounded by economic depression, unemployment, and the strains of daily life. Literature reflected these shifts, portraying characters grappling with uncertainty and searching for new patterns of existence.
Political Landscape and Social Changes
Post-War Challenges and Labor Struggles
Following a short-lived post-war economic boom, inflation set in, accompanied by a series of strikes and labor disputes. The year 1920 witnessed strikes in various sectors, including the police and railway sectors. Social discontent found expression in labor strikes and other acts of resistance. Notably, the London dockers refused to load munitions onto a ship bound for interventionist armies against the Bolsheviks in Russia. The economic hardships of the early 1920s, characterized by unemployment and soaring prices, were indicative of deeper structural problems.
Unemployment and the Great Depression
The 1921 slumps left a staggering 2,170,000 individuals unemployed, leading to the introduction of the 'dole' system. However, fundamental economic issues persisted, manifesting as high prices and acute housing shortages. The year 1926 marked a significant event with the General Strike lasting for nine days. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 sent shockwaves across the globe, initiating the Great Depression of 1929-32. This period brought forth both economic turmoil and social unrest, posing challenges to established systems and norms.
Shifts in Social Structures and Marxist Influence
Marxist thought emerged as a beacon of hope for many, promising a new societal order in the not-so-distant future. Marxism's impact extended to social organization, sparking discussions about power dynamics and social mobility. Traditional aristocracy experienced a decline in power and prestige, as merit and education increasingly dictated social status. The emphasis on addressing social and economic disparities led to the emergence of Marxism as a potential solution, promoting planned development to mitigate extremes of wealth and poverty.
The Era of Tension: The 1930s
Paradoxes of the Twenties and Thirties
Technological advancements and mass production brought a sense of ease and variety to life during the twenties and thirties. Yet, this era also witnessed a growing bitterness between social classes due to underlying economic crises, leading to persistent unemployment. The dichotomy of progress and societal strife defined this period, capturing the complex interplay of change and conflict within the broader societal fabric.
Literary Shifts and Cultural Impact
Impact on Literary Standards
The profound shifts in societal, economic, and political realms reverberated through literature and culture. The advent of mass media, including cinema, radio, and popular literature, marked a significant departure from traditional artistic forms. The popular media exploited crime and love stories for commercial gains, leading to a coarsening of human relationships and emotions. A decline in literary standards accompanied this shift, as the pursuit of profit prioritized sensationalism over artistic depth.
Conclusion: Reflection of the Times in Art
Art, including literature, is often a mirror that reflects the essence of its age. Modern writers were acutely attuned to their social environments, reflecting the multifaceted changes in their works. The intricate interplay between the shifting economic, political, and social landscapes of the 20th century found its artistic reflection in the poetry of the era. As the century underwent dynamic transformations, the literary output of this period emerged as a powerful reflection of these changes, enriching the artistic landscape with new perspectives and narratives.