Dream Variations, Langston Hughes: Summary & Analysis

"Dream Variations" by Langston Hughes is a vivid and evocative poem that presents two contrasting visions of freedom and joy. The poem celebrates the speaker's yearning for equal rights and the ability to enjoy life without racial constraints. Through imagery and contrast, Hughes conveys the desire for a world where racial identity does not limit one's dreams.

Dream Variations by Langston Hughes

To fling my arms wide
In some place of the sun,
To whirl and to dance
Till the white day is done.
Then rest at cool evening
Beneath a tall tree
While night comes on gently,
Dark like me.
That is my dream!
To fling my arms wide
In the face of the sun,
Dance! Whirl! Whirl!
Till the quick day is done.
Rest at pale evening...
A tall, slim tree...
Night coming tenderly
Black like me.


"Dream Variations" contrasts two dream scenarios: one of joyful freedom in the sun and the other of peaceful rest beneath a tree as night falls. The speaker's dream celebrates the possibility of dancing and resting without racial limitations, ultimately highlighting the desire for equality and the freedom to enjoy life without constraints.

Critical Analysis

"Dream Variations" showcases Langston Hughes's use of contrast to illustrate the stark difference between the speaker's desired world of freedom and the reality of racial discrimination. The poem juxtaposes images of dancing, whirling, and resting with descriptions of day and night. This contrast underscores the central theme of racial identity and the yearning for an inclusive world where individuals can embrace their dreams regardless of their skin color.

Themes of the Poem

  • Desire for Freedom: The poem conveys the speaker's yearning for freedom from racial constraints and the ability to fully enjoy life's pleasures.
  • Racial Identity: The poem addresses the experience of being "dark like me" and the longing for a world where racial identity doesn't limit dreams.
  • Contrast: The contrast between images of joy and darkness emphasizes the speaker's longing for a world where they can be carefree and at peace.

Stylistic Analysis

  • Imagery: The poem uses vivid imagery to paint a picture of the speaker's desired scenarios, evoking a sense of joy, movement, and tranquility.
  • Repetition: The repetition of phrases like "To fling my arms wide" and "Dance! Whirl! Whirl!" adds emphasis and rhythm to the poem.


  • Hopeful Yearning: The poem conveys a sense of hopeful yearning for a world where the speaker's dreams can become a reality.
  • Optimism: Despite the challenges, the poem suggests a sense of optimism in the possibility of realizing the dream of equality.


  • Comparisons: The poem uses comparisons between day and night, sun and dark, to highlight the contrast between the speaker's dreams and reality.
  • Symbolism: The "tall tree" and the colors of day and night symbolize peace, rest, and the possibility of equality.

Sound Devices

  • Repetition: The repetition of certain phrases and words creates a rhythmic quality that enhances the poem's flow.
  • Alliteration: The poem includes instances of alliteration, such as "Dance! Whirl! Whirl!" which adds to its musicality.
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