50-50, Langston Hughes: Summary & Analysis

"50-50" by Langston Hughes is a concise yet thought-provoking poem that engages with themes of loneliness, transactional relationships, and societal power dynamics. Through a brief conversation between two characters, Hughes sheds light on the complexities of human connections and the underlying motivations that drive them.

50-50 by Langston Hughes

I’m all alone in this world, she said,
Ain’t got nobody to share my bed,
Ain’t got nobody to hold my hand—
The truth of the matter’s
I ain’t got no man.
Big Boy opened his mouth and said,
Trouble with you is
You ain’t got no head!
If you had a head and used your mind
You could have me with you
All the time.
She answered, Babe, what must I do?
He said, Share your bed—
And your money, too.


In "50-50," a brief exchange unfolds between a woman and a character named Big Boy. The woman articulates her sense of isolation and yearning for companionship, confessing that she lacks a partner to share her bed and offer emotional support. She candidly admits to being without a man in her life.

Big Boy responds with a cynical tone, suggesting that the woman's predicament stems from a lack of intellectual acumen. He implies that she is missing a "head" or the ability to think wisely. His remark carries a dual meaning, insinuating both her lack of cognitive judgment and her emotional naivety.

In search of guidance, the woman queries Big Boy about what actions she should take. Big Boy's retort reinforces a transactional view of relationships—he advises her to share her bed and, more notably, her financial resources in order to secure his companionship.

Critical Analysis

"50-50" engages with the intricacies of human relationships, exposing the vulnerability and desire for companionship experienced by the woman. Her candid expression of loneliness and the absence of someone to share her life with creates an emotionally resonant opening.

Big Boy's response functions as both a critique and a pragmatic perspective. He dismisses the woman's genuine yearning for companionship and implies that her problems stem from a lack of intellectual acumen or emotional intelligence. His observation underscores the complexity of interpersonal dynamics and how they can be exploited.

The closing lines of the poem reveal the transactional nature of Big Boy's view on relationships. He reduces companionship to a bargain, suggesting that the woman can secure his presence by sharing not only her bed but also her financial resources. This reveals the stark power imbalance and the objectification inherent in such an approach.

Themes of the Poem

  • Loneliness and Companionship: The poem delves into the universal longing for companionship and the emotional emptiness that comes with loneliness.
  • Transactional Nature of Relationships: The poem exposes the transactional aspect of some relationships, where personal gain is prioritized over genuine emotional connection.
  • Social Power Dynamics: The dialogue between the characters reflects a power imbalance, with one party exploiting the vulnerabilities of the other.

Stylistic Analysis

  • Conversational Dialogue: The use of direct dialogue creates an immediate engagement with the characters' interactions, allowing readers to immerse themselves in the conversation.
  • Satirical Undertone: The poem employs a satirical tone to shed light on the insincerity and cynicism inherent in the transactional perspective presented by Big Boy.


  • Yearning and Loneliness: The woman expresses a genuine yearning for companionship, while Big Boy's response reflects a dismissive attitude and a pragmatic approach.
  • Transactional Mindset: Big Boy's view underscores the transactional approach to relationships, emphasizing material gain over emotional connection.


  • Conversational Tone: The poem's conversational tone enhances the immediacy of the dialogue, making the characters' perspectives more relatable to readers.
  • Double Meaning: Big Boy's remark about lacking a "head" carries both a literal and metaphorical implication, adding depth to his critique.

Sound Devices

  • Rhythmic Flow: The rhythmic quality of the dialogue contributes to the conversational nature of the poem, engaging readers in the characters' exchange.
  • Repetition: The repetition of "Ain't got nobody" emphasizes the woman's sense of emptiness and loneliness.

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