Perception of Human Nature
The Freudian perspective on human nature is fundamentally deterministic. According to Freud, our behavior is shaped by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological as well as instinctual drives that develop during crucial psychosexual stages in the early six years of life.
Libido: Energy of Life Instincts
Freud initially used the term "libido" to refer to sexual energy, but later expanded its meaning. Libido encompasses the energy associated with all life instincts. These instincts serve the purpose of ensuring the survival of both individuals and the human race. They are oriented towards growth, development, and creativity. Libido is a source of motivation that goes beyond sexual energy, encompassing the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain as fundamental goals in life.
Death Instincts: Aggressive Drive
In addition to life instincts, Freud proposed the existence of death instincts, which account for the aggressive drive. At times, individuals unconsciously exhibit a desire to die or cause harm to themselves or others through their behavior. Managing this aggressive drive presents a significant challenge for humanity.
In Freud's view, both sexual and aggressive drives exert powerful influences on human actions and behaviors, shaping our perception and understanding of human nature.