When exploring a literary work from a Lacanian perspective, a reliable approach, especially for beginners, is to examine how the text might be structured by key Lacanian concepts. Several questions can guide this exploration:
- Which characters, events, or episodes embody the Imaginary Order, representing private, fantasy, or delusional worlds?
- Where do we see the influence of the Symbolic Order in characters' behavior and narrative events, reflecting ideology and social norms?
- How is the relationship between the Imaginary and Symbolic Orders portrayed in the text?
- Can we discover where characters have invested their unconscious desire for objet petit a, the idealized mother of infancy?
- Does any part of the text operate as a representation of the Real, that unknowable dimension of existence that induces anxiety and terror?
Literary Examples through a Lacanian Lens
Examining two literary examples sheds light on how Lacanian concepts can be applied to interpret literature:
Example 1: "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
In this story, the unnamed narrator increasingly immerses herself in the Imaginary Order, rejecting the restrictive Symbolic Order embodied in her husband and brother. The yellow wallpaper may represent the Lacanian Real—an uninterpretable dimension that she encounters. Her encounters with the wallpaper illustrate the trauma of the Real. The story presents a character caught between the Symbolic Order's restrictions and the incomprehensible Real, ultimately finding solace in the Imaginary Order, leading to her detachment from society.
Example 2: "The Awakening" by Kate Chopin
In this novella, the protagonist, Edna Pontellier, is drawn to the Imaginary Order—art, music, sexual freedom, and romance. Her longing remains unsatisfied because she unconsciously desires objet petit a, the lost fantasy union with her mother from infancy. This search leads her to a fatal union with the sea, symbolizing her quest for the unattainable object. "The Awakening" illustrates how Edna's unconscious desire shapes her experiences and drives her to seek fulfillment in the unattainable.
Lacanian psychoanalysis encompasses more concepts and complexities than this summary can cover. Nevertheless, even a glimpse of these ideas and their application to literary examples can offer intriguing insights into human experience and enrich our understanding of literature through a Lacanian lens.