It was not Death, for I stood up, Emily Dickinson, Summary & Analysis

A Comprehensive Study Guide for "It was not Death, for I stood up" by Emily Dickinson

The Poem

It was not Death, for I stood up,
And all the Dead, lie down -
It was not Night, for all the Bells
Put out their Tongues, for Noon.

It was not Frost, for on my Flesh
I felt Siroccos - crawl -
Nor Fire - for just my marble feet
Could keep a Chancel, cool -

And yet, it tasted, like them all,
The Figures I have seen
Set orderly, for Burial
Reminded me, of mine -

As if my life were shaven,
And fitted to a frame,
And could not breathe without a key,
And ’twas like Midnight, some -

When everything that ticked - has stopped -
And space stares - all around -
Or Grisly frosts - first Autumn morns,
Repeal the Beating Ground -

But most, like Chaos - Stopless - cool -
Without a Chance, or spar -
Or even a Report of Land -
To justify - Despair.


The poem "It was not Death, for I stood up" by Emily Dickinson explores the speaker's contemplation of an experience that is neither death, night, frost, nor fire. The speaker reflects on the sensations and imagery associated with these elements. The figures that the speaker has seen in burial settings remind them of their own mortality. The speaker feels as if their life has been confined and restrained, like a framed object. The experience is likened to midnight, where everything stops, space is vast, and a sense of chaos and despair prevails without any hope of justification.

Major Themes

  • Existential contemplation of life and death
  • The limitations and confinement of human existence
  • The transient and fleeting nature of life
  • The overwhelming presence of chaos and despair

Critical Analysis

"It was not Death, for I stood up" invites readers to delve into the profound themes of life, mortality, and the human experience. Through symbolism, language, structure, sound devices, and the portrayal of attitudes and feelings, Emily Dickinson captures the complex emotions and existential ponderings of the speaker.


  • Death, night, frost, and fire: Represent various experiences or elements that the speaker rejects as explanations for their state of being.
  • Figures set orderly for burial: Symbolize the presence and reminder of mortality, prompting the speaker to contemplate their own mortality and the transience of life.
  • Frame and key: Symbolize the constraints and limitations imposed on the speaker's life, emphasizing a sense of confinement and restriction.
  • Midnight and space: Convey a sense of stillness, vastness, and the absence of temporal and spatial boundaries, evoking feelings of isolation and despair.


  • Use of dashes: Creates pauses and breaks, adding emphasis and reflecting the fragmented nature of the speaker's thoughts and experiences.
  • Evocative imagery: Dickinson employs vivid descriptions, such as "siroccos crawling on my flesh" and "marble feet keeping a chancel cool," to engage the reader's senses and evoke a sense of discomfort and confinement.


  • Four stanzas with varying line lengths: Reflects the irregular and fragmented nature of the speaker's thoughts and emotions.
  • Irregular capitalization: Draws attention to specific words and phrases, emphasizing their significance within the context of the poem.

Sound devices

  • Consonance: The repetition of consonant sounds, such as the "t" sounds in "tasted," "Figures," and "just," adds musicality and enhances the flow of the poem.
  • Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds, like the "i" sounds in "life," "shaven," and "like," contributes to the melodic quality of the poem.


  • Existential contemplation
  • Restraint and confinement
  • Despair and hopelessness

Similar Poems & How they Match

  • "Because I could not stop for Death" by Emily Dickinson: Both poems explore the themes of life, death, and the transient nature of existence. They delve into the contemplation of mortality and the limitations imposed on human beings, evoking a sense of existential unease.
  • "The Waste Land" by T.S. Eliot: Both poems share a sense of disillusionment, despair, and the exploration of the fragmented nature of human existence. They reflect on the chaos and emptiness of modern life, questioning the purpose and meaning of it all.

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