- Research question: This is the central question that the research is designed to answer. It should be clear, specific, and focused.
- Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a prediction or expectation about the relationship between two or more variables. It is typically tested through research.
- Operational definition: An operational definition is a precise and specific definition of a concept or variable that allows it to be measured or manipulated in research.
- Variables: A variable is a concept or aspect of a study that can vary or change. There are two main types of variables: independent and dependent.
- Independent variable: The independent variable is the variable that is being manipulated or changed by the researcher in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable.
- Dependent variable: The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or observed in order to see how it is affected by the independent variable.
- Confounding variables: A confounding variable is a variable that is not being controlled or accounted for in a study, and may be affecting the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
- Experimental group: The experimental group is the group of participants who are exposed to the independent variable in a study.
- Control group: The control group is the group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable in a study, and serve as a comparison for the experimental group.
- Random assignment: Random assignment is the process of assigning participants to different groups in a study randomly, in order to control for potential confounding variables.
- Random sampling: Random sampling is the process of selecting a representative sample from a larger population using random methods, in order to increase the representativeness and generalizability of the study findings.
- Reliability: Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of a measure or instrument. A reliable measure produces consistent results over time and across different conditions.
- Validity: Validity refers to the accuracy and appropriateness of a measure or instrument. A valid measure accurately reflects the concept or variable it is intended to measure.
- Internal validity: Internal validity refers to the extent to which a study's results can be attributed to the independent variable, rather than to other factors.
- External validity: External validity refers to the extent to which a study's findings can be generalized to other populations or settings.
- Construct validity: Construct validity refers to the extent to which a measure or instrument accurately reflects the theoretical concept it is intended to measure.
- Content validity: Content validity refers to the extent to which a measure or instrument covers all aspects of the concept it is intended to measure.
- Face validity: Face validity refers to the extent to which a measure or instrument appears to be measuring the intended concept to someone unfamiliar with the measure.
- Correlation: Correlation refers to the relationship between two or more variables. A positive correlation means that the variables are related in a way that when one increases, the other also increases. A negative correlation means that the variables are related in a way that when one increases, the other decreases.
- Scatterplot: A scatterplot is a graph that shows the relationship between two variables. It plots the values of one variable on the x-axis and the values of the other variable on the y-axis.
- Regression: Regression is a statistical technique that is used to predict the value of a dependent variable based on the value of an independent variable
- Sampling error: Sampling error refers to the difference between the characteristics of the sample and the characteristics of the population from which the sample is drawn. It can occur when the sample is not representative of the population.
- Measurement error: Measurement error refers to the error or inconsistency that is introduced when a measure or instrument is used to assess a concept. It can be due to a variety of factors, including the reliability and validity of the measure, the skill of the researcher, and the response of the participant.
- Bias: Bias refers to the systematic distortion of research results due to factors such as the researcher's beliefs, expectations, or methods. It can occur at various stages of the research process, including sampling, measurement, and analysis.
- Observational study: An observational study is a research method in which the researcher observes and records the behavior of participants without manipulating any variables.
- Survey: A survey is a research method in which the researcher collects data from a sample of participants using structured questions or interviews.
- Case study: A case study is a research method in which the researcher investigates a single case in depth, using a variety of data sources such as interviews, observations, and documents.
- Field study: A field study is a research method in which the researcher observes and records the behavior of participants in their natural environment.
- Longitudinal study: A longitudinal study is a research method in which the same sample of participants is studied over an extended period of time.
- Cross-sectional study: A cross-sectional study is a research method in which data is collected from a sample of participants at a single point in time. It is used to compare different groups or to examine relationships between variables.
Kerlinger, F.N., & Lee, H.B. (2000). Foundations of Behavioural Research (Fourth Edition), Harcourt Inc.
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