Plotinus and the "One"
Plotinus identifies the "One" as the foundational source of all existence and the origin of value, which manifests through a triad comprising the Good, the Intellect, and its knowledge, and the All-Soul. In Plotinus' perspective, everything emanates from the "One." Reality is depicted as a series of expanding concentric circles, each dependent on the preceding one and all stemming from the eternal "One." The ultimate goal is the return to this singular source.
Unity transitions into multiplicity, and oneness transforms into individuation. Plotinus accords a central role to beauty within his system, asserting that the more beautiful something is, the closer it aligns with the "One." However, he emphasizes that mere symmetry does not necessarily signify beauty.
The Artist as Creator
Plotinus places great emphasis on the artist as a creator. He argues that nature is incomplete, and it is the artist who extracts raw materials from nature and imparts a beautiful form, effectively reshaping them by introducing novelty. This creative ability is intrinsic to the artist, driven by an intuitive force rather than a rational mind.
The beauty of the artist's creation does not lie in the physical object it replicates or shapes but in the transformative power that the artist imposes on the materials. Through this act of imposition, the artist redefines the materials, giving them a new form. This transformative process originates from within the artist, who has the capacity to enhance what nature lacks.
Unity in Artistic Beauty
Plotinus underscores the significance of unity in the context of natural or artistic beauty, attributing a microcosmic significance to every experience of beauty. He contends that the beauty of any whole is contingent on the harmonious interaction of its constituent parts, rather than their individual qualities. Artists strive to approach this totality, exemplifying the struggle to achieve it.
Plotinus views the artist as a creator of vehicles for valuable, albeit imperfect, spiritual insight. Unlike working with rational principles, the artist's role is to express insights into the "One" through artistic means. This expression embodies what Plotinus terms "intellectual beauty."
The Role of Art in Transformation
Plotinus illustrates his concept by comparing an untreated block of stone to a finished sculpture. The raw stone lacks artistry, while the crafted sculpture embodies the artist's vision, turning the stone into something beautiful. The beauty of the stone is not inherent but arises from the form or idea introduced by the artist. Hence, art has the capacity to infuse raw materials with ideas, adding beauty to the materials themselves.
When an artist molds a stone into an image, they continually bring the "One" into the material world. This process involves the artist's soul, intellect, and skill, which elevate the stone towards perfection. As the artist shapes the matter with skill, guided by intellect and emotion, the stone ascends toward the "One." The artist's creation shines with the intellectual beauty that Plotinus describes.
Plotinus' Departure from Plato
Plotinus diverges from Plato's perspective, where Plato characterizes the artist as a mere imitator. In contrast, Plotinus celebrates the artist as a creator, offering a unique viewpoint on the role of art in the quest for truth and beauty.
Plotinus: Exploring His Neo-Platonic Ideas
Plotinus, a renowned Neo-Platonist philosopher and mystic, presents a profound worldview that distinguishes between the ideal realm, which he calls "There," and the physical world, referred to as "Here."
On Intellectual Beauty: The Superiority of Art
Art as a Bridge
Plotinus diverges from Plato's view by asserting that art is not mere imitation but rather a superior form of expression. He argues that art serves as a bridge that unites the ideal realm of "There" and the physical world of "Here." In art, the divine is tangible, allowing individuals to connect with the sacred."In the first stage of mystical union, the Divine invades the subject as a glorified self-image. In its final stages, the self fades out completely as the subject becomes completely identified with divine power and will." (109)
The Wisdom of the Artist
For Plotinus, artists do not merely copy things from the physical world but channel the wisdom of the divine. The artist's wisdom guides their creative work, bringing the wisdom of the divine closer to our senses.
The Concept of Beauty
Beauty in Creation
Plotinus posits that we are all creations of a beautiful god, and therefore, we all possess inherent beauty. This holistic view aligns with Plato's perspective, suggesting that if the creator is beautiful, then everything created by the creator is also beautiful."The Nature, then, which creates things so lovely must be itself of a far earlier beauty." (111)
Finding Beauty Within
Plotinus encourages individuals to recognize the beauty within themselves. He emphasizes that beauty exists within every person and that self-awareness is the key to unlocking this beauty. To him, a lack of self-awareness results in a failure to recognize one's intrinsic beauty."We ourselves possess beauty when we are true to our own being; our ugliness is in going over to another order; our self-knowledge, that is to say, is our beauty; in self-ignorance we are ugly." (118)
The Role of Wisdom
Wisdom as Divine
In Plotinus' worldview, wisdom represents a manifestation of the divine. Everything that exists embodies a form of divine wisdom. Artists play a crucial role in bringing this divine wisdom closer to our senses through their creations."For each manifestation of knowledge and wisdom is a distinct image, an object in itself, an immediate unity … later, from this wisdom in unity there appears." (113)
"There" and "Here": Plotinus' Ideal and Physical Realms
The Concept of "There"
Plotinus, like Plato, believes in the existence of an ideal world, which he calls "There." This realm represents our aspirations, goals, dreams, and desires. It is an unattainable and purely conceptual realm that does not exist physically.
The Reality of "Here"
On the other hand, "Here" signifies our current physical reality, where we currently reside. Plotinus suggests that everything in this world is interconnected, with each part being a constituent of a larger whole."In our realm all is part rising from part and nothing can be more than partial." (112)
This quote underscores a fundamental difference between Plato and Plotinus. While Plato views everything as a mere copy of the ideal world, Plotinus asserts that we live in the world of "Here," which is an integral part of the world of "There."