200+ Cohesive Devices: Types, Tips, Functions & Examples | The Ultimate Guide

Cohesive devices function as essential linguistic tools, facilitating seamless transitions and logical connections in written expression. This guide meticulously presents a comprehensive collection of over 200 cohesive devices, thoughtfully categorized into two types—lexical cohesive devices and logical cohesive devices. These types are further organized into 20 distinct functions, encompassing mechanisms for indicating agreement, contradiction, cause and effect, along with providing examples and delineating relationships in time and space. Using illustrative examples, slides, and infographics, this guide aims to furnish writers with a refined understanding of these devices, empowering them to construct articulate and interconnected narratives.

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Slides on Cohesive Devices

2 Types of Cohesive Devices with 20 functions & Examples

Here is the ultimate list of cohesive devices!
Table of Contents


Logical cohesive devices are the first type of cohesive devices basically and they create logical connections between sentences, between sections of a paragraph, or between paragraphs. Below given are 11 functions logical cohesive devices.

1. Addition: Introducing Additional Information

These cohesive devices are used to add information, examples, or emphasis to the existing content.

Usage & Examples:

  1. again: The team faced challenges, but they overcame them, and again, achieved success.
  2. equally: The benefits of the new policy were equally significant for both urban and rural communities.
  3. in fact: The initiative had widespread community support; in fact, local businesses actively participated in its implementation.
  4. also: The company focused on sustainability and also invested in employee well-being.
  5. furthermore: The project aimed at reducing waste; furthermore, it promoted responsible consumption.
  6. moreover: The educational campaign not only raised awareness about environmental issues but moreover, inspired community-led initiatives.
  7. and: The research indicated positive trends, and it emphasized the need for continued efforts.
  8. in addition (to...): The company implemented energy-efficient measures, in addition to introducing recycling programs.
  9. too: The government offered incentives for businesses, too, encouraging sustainable practices.
  10. and then: The team focused on reducing their carbon footprint, and then they explored ways to offset the remaining emissions.
  11. indeed: The new technology improved efficiency; indeed, it reduced energy consumption by 30%.
  12. what is more: The campaign raised awareness about pollution, what is more, it led to increased community involvement in clean-up activities.
  13. besides: The project had economic benefits, besides, it contributed to environmental conservation.
  14. 2. Comparison: Highlighting Similarities or Differences

    These cohesive devices are used to compare ideas, highlight similarities or differences, and draw parallels between concepts.

    Usage & Examples:

  15. compared with: The new model had higher efficiency compared with the previous version.
  16. in the same way: The team approached the problem systematically, and in the same way, they addressed each issue one by one.
  17. similarly: The two projects had different scopes, but similarly, both aimed at promoting sustainability.
  18. in comparison with: The environmental impact of the two industries was assessed, and in comparison with each other, the manufacturing sector had a larger footprint.
  19. likewise: The community prioritized renewable energy sources, and likewise, businesses in the area also adopted sustainable practices.
  20. like: The company implemented measures like reducing water usage and waste management to improve environmental sustainability.
  21. contrastingly: The traditional approach relied on non-renewable resources; contrastingly, the new strategy focused on harnessing renewable energy.
  22. on the contrary: The initial results suggested a negative impact, but on the contrary, further analysis revealed positive long-term effects.
  23. conversely: While the urban areas experienced growth, conversely, rural regions faced economic challenges.
  24. different from: The approach to waste management was different from conventional methods, emphasizing recycling and resource recovery.
  25. whereas: The first phase of the project focused on infrastructure, whereas the second phase prioritized community engagement.
  26. unlike: The two policies had distinct goals; unlike one aimed at economic growth, the other focused on environmental conservation.
  27. by comparison: The new technology was more efficient; by comparison, the older systems were outdated and less reliable.
  28. in contrast to: The city's efforts to reduce pollution were noticeable, in contrast to neighboring areas where pollution levels remained high.
  29. in a similar vein: The initiatives to promote clean energy were successful; in a similar vein, initiatives for water conservation gained momentum.
  30. 3. Enumeration: Listing or Enumerating Ideas or Steps

    These cohesive devices are used to enumerate or list ideas, steps, or points in a sequential order.

    Usage & Examples:

  31. first(ly): First, conduct a thorough analysis of the current situation before proposing any changes.
  32. (second(ly)): (Second), identify key stakeholders and gather their input on the proposed solutions.
  33. last: Addressing communication issues is crucial; last, establish a feedback mechanism for ongoing improvement.
  34. on top of (that): Implement energy-efficient measures, and on top of that, explore the possibility of using renewable energy sources.
  35. finally: Evaluate the impact of the new policy on the community, and finally, make necessary adjustments based on feedback.
  36. next to: Addressing environmental concerns is a priority; next to that, focus on promoting social sustainability within the community.
  37. (begin with): (Begin with) a comprehensive needs assessment to identify areas for improvement and development.
  38. in the (first) place: Implementing sustainable practices is essential; in the first place, it reduces the ecological footprint of the community.
  39. more important than: Prioritize initiatives that promote inclusivity; more important than that, ensure equal access to resources for all community members.
  40. 4. Exemplification: Providing Examples or Instances

    These cohesive devices are used to provide examples or instances that illustrate a point or support an argument.

    Usage & Examples:

  41. as (evidence of...): Implementing energy-efficient practices serves as evidence of the company's commitment to sustainability.
  42. such as: The organization focuses on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power.
  43. for example: The new policy promotes eco-friendly transportation; for example, encouraging the use of bicycles and electric vehicles.
  44. thus: The community invested in green spaces; thus, creating areas for recreation and promoting environmental conservation.
  45. for instance: The city implemented various measures to reduce water consumption; for instance, installing low-flow faucets and promoting water conservation awareness.
  46. to show what (I mean): The initiative focuses on sustainable agriculture, to show what I mean, by utilizing organic farming practices and minimizing chemical inputs.
  47. let us (take the case of...): Let us take the case of a city that successfully implemented a waste-to-energy program, reducing landfill waste and generating clean energy.
  48. as an illustration of: The community project aimed at reducing carbon emissions as an illustration of the city's commitment to combating climate change.
  49. in particular: The company focuses on reducing single-use plastics; in particular, by encouraging the use of reusable alternatives.
  50. namely: The educational campaign addressed various environmental issues, namely, air pollution, water contamination, and deforestation.
  51. in this case: The implementation of green building practices was successful; in this case, the construction of energy-efficient buildings reduced overall energy consumption.
  52. like: Sustainable practices like composting and recycling contribute to reducing waste and promoting environmental health.
  53. including: The community initiatives focused on improving overall well-being, including access to healthcare, education, and sustainable employment.
  54. especially: The company emphasizes sustainable sourcing of raw materials, especially, those used in packaging and production.
  55. by way of illustration: The city implemented smart transportation solutions, by way of illustration, introducing efficient public transit systems and bike-sharing programs.
  56. 5. Inference: Drawing Conclusions or Making Inferences

    These cohesive devices are used to indicate that a conclusion or inference can be drawn based on the information provided.

    Usage & Examples:

  57. If not,: The initial plan had limitations; if not, it would have hindered the project's overall success.
  58. otherwise: Implementing sustainable practices is crucial; otherwise, the environmental impact could be irreversible.
  59. then: Focus on reducing waste in the production process; then, the overall environmental impact will be minimized.
  60. In (that) case: In that case, it is essential to reevaluate the strategy and make necessary adjustments.
  61. that implies: The data shows a decline in biodiversity; that implies potential consequences for the ecosystem as a whole.
  62. by extension: The success of the community project benefits the entire region; by extension, it contributes to broader environmental conservation efforts.
  63. in other words: The budget constraints limited the scope of the project; in other words, certain features had to be scaled down or excluded.
  64. therefore: The community's commitment to sustainable practices is evident; therefore, their impact on environmental conservation is significant.
  65. as a result: The implementation of energy-efficient measures yielded positive outcomes; as a result, energy consumption decreased significantly.
  66. consequently: The decline in air quality has health implications for the population; consequently, public health measures need to be implemented.
  67. due to this: The lack of proper waste management led to environmental pollution; due to this, urgent measures need to be taken to address the issue.
  68. in light of this: The study revealed alarming trends in deforestation; in light of this, policymakers need to consider stricter regulations on logging.
  69. for this reason: The city prioritizes green infrastructure; for this reason, parks and green spaces are integrated into urban planning.
  70. hence: The shift towards renewable energy sources is crucial; hence, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating climate change.
  71. in essence: The community initiatives, in essence, demonstrate a commitment to building a sustainable and resilient future.
  72. in that event: If environmental regulations are not enforced, in that event, companies may neglect sustainable practices.
  73. to this end: The organization focuses on education and awareness campaigns; to this end, fostering a culture of environmental responsibility.
  74. 6. Summary: Summarizing or Concluding Information

    These cohesive devices are used to summarize or conclude information, providing a brief overview of key points.

    Usage & Examples:

  75. in all: The community initiatives aimed at sustainability had positive outcomes in all aspects, from environmental to social impacts.
  76. in short: The new policy focused on reducing carbon emissions; in short, it aimed at creating a more sustainable and eco-friendly environment.
  77. on the whole: The results of the study indicate positive trends in environmental conservation; on the whole, the efforts have been successful.
  78. in brief: The community project, in brief, aimed to create a more environmentally conscious and sustainable living environment.
  79. in conclusion: The findings of the research support the need for increased investment in renewable energy sources; in conclusion, transitioning to clean energy is essential.
  80. to sum up: The community's commitment to sustainability is evident through various initiatives; to sum up, they actively contribute to environmental conservation.
  81. in summary: The comprehensive analysis of the project outcomes, in summary, highlights the positive impact on both the environment and the community.
  82. to conclude: The policies implemented over the past decade, to conclude, have significantly improved the region's environmental sustainability.
  83. all in all: The collaborative efforts of the community, businesses, and local government, all in all, have created a more sustainable and resilient community.
  84. to recap: The key achievements of the sustainability initiative, to recap, include reduced waste, increased recycling rates, and improved energy efficiency.
  85. in essence: The overarching goal of the project, in essence, is to create a model for sustainable urban development that can be replicated in other regions.
  86. overall: The environmental impact assessment indicates positive changes; overall, the region has become more sustainable over the years.
  87. in a nutshell: The community's journey towards sustainability, in a nutshell, involves various initiatives such as green energy adoption, waste reduction, and community education.
  88. briefly: The study explores the correlation between green spaces and mental well-being; briefly, it highlights the positive influence of nature on mental health.
  89. to summarize: The community-led projects, to summarize, have successfully integrated environmental sustainability into various aspects of daily life.
  90. 7. Time: Sequencing Events or Describing Temporal Relationships

    These cohesive devices are used to indicate the sequence of events, describe temporal relationships, or convey the passage of time.

    Usage & Examples:

  91. after (a while): The community project faced challenges initially, but after a while, it gained widespread support.
  92. before (that time): The city had limited recycling programs before that time; now, there are comprehensive waste management initiatives in place.
  93. since (then): The environmental policies were strengthened in 2010, and since then, there has been a noticeable improvement in air quality.
  94. afterwards: The initial phase focused on research and planning; afterwards, the implementation phase began.
  95. finally: The sustainability project faced delays, but finally, it was successfully launched last year.
  96. so far: The renewable energy project has been implemented for two years, and so far, it has significantly reduced carbon emissions.
  97. at first: At first, the community members were skeptical, but they eventually embraced the sustainable practices.
  98. in the end: The initiative faced challenges, but in the end, it led to positive changes in the community.
  99. then: The awareness campaign started with educational programs, and then, community-led sustainability projects were initiated.
  100. at last: The project faced funding issues, but at last, the required resources were secured.
  101. meanwhile: The research team focused on data collection; meanwhile, community engagement activities were ongoing.
  102. (up to) then: The organization had implemented various green initiatives, up to then, when a comprehensive sustainability strategy was introduced.
  103. at (the same time): The community prioritized economic development at the same time as implementing environmental conservation measures.
  104. next: The initial phase involved waste reduction; next, the focus will shift to promoting green energy solutions.
  105. 8. Result: Indicating Cause and Effect or Consequences

    These cohesive devices are used to indicate cause and effect, or to express the consequences of a particular action or situation.

    Usage & Examples:

  106. accordingly: The community implemented water conservation measures, and accordingly, there was a significant decrease in water consumption.
  107. for that reason: The city invested in green infrastructure, for that reason, improving air quality and creating a healthier environment.
  108. then: The initiative focused on reducing plastic waste; then, local businesses began adopting eco-friendly packaging.
  109. as a result: The switch to renewable energy sources, as a result, led to a substantial reduction in carbon emissions.
  110. hence: The company committed to sustainable sourcing of raw materials, hence, minimizing the environmental impact of production.
  111. therefore: The implementation of green building practices enhanced energy efficiency; therefore, overall operational costs were reduced.
  112. consequently: The expansion of green spaces improved community well-being; consequently, there was a decrease in stress levels among residents.
  113. the (consequence) of that is...: The lack of waste management strategies resulted in increased pollution; the consequence of that is, environmental degradation.
  114. thus: The city promoted sustainable transportation options; thus, reducing traffic congestion and lowering carbon emissions.
  115. in consequence: The industrial practices had a negative impact on the river ecosystem; in consequence, aquatic life suffered, and water quality declined.
  116. so: The community prioritized tree planting initiatives, so, contributing to improved air quality and a greener environment.
  117. resulting in: The implementation of eco-friendly policies, resulting in a decrease in the carbon footprint of the city.
  118. due to this: The increased use of electric vehicles, due to this, led to a reduction in air pollution in urban areas.
  119. in effect: The government introduced stricter environmental regulations; in effect, industries had to adopt cleaner production methods.
  120. bringing about: The community's collective efforts, bringing about positive change in the overall sustainability of the region.
  121. leading to: The conservation efforts in the national park, leading to increased biodiversity and preservation of endangered species.
  122. as a consequence: The depletion of natural resources, as a consequence, highlighted the need for sustainable resource management practices.
  123. 9. Reformulation: Expressing Ideas in a Different Way

    These cohesive devices are used to express ideas in a different or simplified manner, providing alternative explanations or formulations.

    Usage & Examples:

  124. in other words: The community focused on sustainable practices, in other words, they aimed to reduce their ecological footprint.
  125. that is to say: The project aimed at promoting green building practices; that is to say, environmentally friendly construction methods were emphasized.
  126. rather: The initiative didn't merely target pollution reduction; rather, it sought to create a healthier living environment for all.
  127. to put it more (simply): The company aimed at reducing waste in a nutshell; to put it more simply, they focused on minimizing resource use and promoting recycling.
  128. in simpler terms: The sustainability goals were complex, but in simpler terms, they aimed to make the community more eco-friendly.
  129. or, more plainly: The project involved advanced technology, or, more plainly, sophisticated tools were used for better efficiency.
  130. to rephrase: The study focused on the environmental impact of urbanization; to rephrase, it examined how city growth affected ecosystems.
  131. to express it differently: The policy emphasized the importance of renewable energy; to express it differently, it highlighted the need to shift away from fossil fuels.
  132. in a different light: The community project may seem complex, but in a different light, it aimed to simplify sustainable living for residents.
  133. to reword: The guidelines were detailed; to reword, they provided specific instructions for waste separation and recycling.
  134. to paraphrase: The initiative aimed at reducing carbon emissions; to paraphrase, it sought to limit the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
  135. put differently: The organization focused on reducing its carbon footprint; put differently, it aimed to minimize its overall impact on the environment.
  136. in plainer terms: The project aimed at enhancing biodiversity; in plainer terms, it sought to protect and promote a variety of plant and animal species.
  137. to explain it differently: The concept of sustainable living might be complex; to explain it differently, it involves making choices that have a positive impact on the environment.
  138. 10. Replacement: Introducing Alternatives or Substitutes

    These cohesive devices are used to introduce alternatives or substitutes, suggesting a different approach or option.

    Usage & Examples:

  139. Again (better): The community project faced challenges in the initial phase; again (better), lessons learned paved the way for smoother implementations in subsequent phases.
  140. still: The organization implemented water-saving measures, but still, faced water scarcity issues; further strategies were required.
  141. the alternative is...: Traditional energy sources pose environmental risks; the alternative is, shifting towards renewable energy for a sustainable future.
  142. Alternatively: The initial plan involved extensive construction; alternatively, a focus on adaptive reuse of existing structures was considered.
  143. on the other hand: The project aimed at large-scale wind energy production; on the other hand, solar energy options were also explored for diversification.
  144. in contrast: The community considered building a new landfill; in contrast, exploring waste-to-energy solutions was proposed as a more sustainable option.
  145. rather than: The company considered expanding the traditional production line; rather than, they explored automated and sustainable manufacturing processes.
  146. or else: The transportation plan involved increased road construction; or else, investing in public transit systems was suggested as a more sustainable choice.
  147. as another option: The organization aimed to reduce paper consumption; as another option, promoting digital documentation was considered.
  148. in lieu of: The community initially planned large-scale deforestation; in lieu of, sustainable logging practices were proposed to maintain the ecosystem.
  149. preferably: The project aimed at reducing energy consumption; preferably, incorporating energy-efficient technologies was seen as a better approach.
  150. on a different note: The initial proposal involved extensive land clearing; on a different note, exploring vertical farming options was suggested.
  151. or instead: The plan included conventional waste disposal methods; or instead, implementing recycling and composting initiatives was considered.
  152. as a substitute: The conventional construction materials were resource-intensive; as a substitute, eco-friendly and recycled materials were proposed.
  153. in place of: The city aimed at increasing carpooling; in place of, promoting bicycle-sharing programs was considered as a more sustainable commuting option.
  154. to the contrary: The proposal suggested increasing single-use plastics; to the contrary, emphasizing the use of reusable alternatives was recommended.
  155. in exchange for: The initial waste management plan had limitations; in exchange for, exploring partnerships with recycling facilities was suggested.
  156. rather more: The organization focused on reducing water usage; rather more, investing in advanced water recycling technologies was seen as a more impactful solution.
  157. 11. Transition: Shifting Focus or Introducing New Topics

    These cohesive devices are used to transition between different topics or ideas, shifting the focus from one aspect to another.

    Usage & Examples:

  158. As far as... is concerned: As far as environmental conservation is concerned, the community has implemented various sustainable practices.
  159. now: The initial phase focused on waste reduction; now, the community is exploring renewable energy solutions.
  160. As for...: As for waste management, the city is considering implementing a comprehensive recycling program.
  161. to turn to...: After addressing water conservation, the community decided to turn to initiatives promoting green spaces and biodiversity.
  162. Incidentally: The city focused on reducing air pollution; incidentally, efforts to enhance public transportation were also underway.
  163. with (reference) to...: With reference to renewable energy, the organization is actively investing in solar and wind power projects.
  164. in this context: The discussion initially centered around waste management; in this context, let's explore the importance of composting in reducing organic waste.
  165. moving on: Having discussed energy efficiency, moving on, let's delve into the benefits of sustainable transportation.
  166. speaking of which: The city has implemented green building practices; speaking of which, the use of eco-friendly materials has become a standard in construction projects.
  167. concerning...: The project made strides in reducing carbon emissions; concerning water conservation, new initiatives are being introduced.
  168. on that note: The community successfully implemented a plastic ban; on that note, let's explore the role of businesses in reducing plastic packaging.
  169. meanwhile: The organization focused on community education; meanwhile, efforts to enhance green infrastructure were ongoing.
  170. turning our attention to...: After discussing waste reduction, turning our attention to transportation, the city is exploring electric vehicle adoption.
  171. to bring it back to...: The conversation shifted towards renewable energy; to bring it back to waste reduction, innovative recycling methods are being explored.
  172. looking ahead: The project achieved success in energy conservation; looking ahead, the focus is on creating a sustainable and resilient urban environment.
  173. going beyond: The community prioritized tree planting initiatives; going beyond, efforts are underway to create urban green corridors.
  174. to shift gears: Having covered the importance of sustainable agriculture, to shift gears, let's explore the role of technology in environmental monitoring.


This is the second type of cohesive devices, grammatical or lexical cohesive devices are used for grammatical purposes while creating meaningful connections at the same time.

1. Use of pronominal forms to replace noun phrases


  • Napoleon was a great soldier. He was also a great administrator.
  • John bought a new car. It cost a lot of money, but it goes a lot better than his old one.
  • John and Mary are going on holiday to brazil. Their friends are very envious.
  • He decided to take some heavy shoes with him. He thought that these would be useful in case he went walking.

    2. Use of pronominal forms to replace adverbials (noun phrases of time and place)


  • He left the following day. He knew then that he was not coming back.
  • We called on them soon after breakfast.. We should have realised that this was a bad time for a visit. ( Noun phrases are also used as replacives. For example: John was born just before the war. At that time his parents lived in London)
  • I decided to take my books back to the library. When I got there, I found it was closed.

    3. Use of pronominal forms to replace clauses or sentences.


  • Some students work all night just before an exam. This is a great mistake.
  • John has just resigned. It was quite unexpected. Notice that in the examples above the pronominal forms all refer back to something previously mentioned. They may also refer forward. For example:
  • This is what you should do. You should be very frank.
  • My advice is as follows. Be very frank.

    4. Use of determiners (the, this, that, etc.) to refer back to a previous noun phrase


  • Thieves broke into a jeweller’s shop in North Street last night. The thieves entered the shop through a small back window.
  • I bought a pocket calculator last year. That calculator has proved very useful. Former and latter are used to refer back to one of two previous noun phrases:
  • John and Tom both took part in the play. Only the former has had any real experience of acting. The latter had never even been on the stage before.

    5. Repetition of key words


    These particular train services are not used very much by commuters. As a rule, commuters tend to travel much earlier.

    6. Use of synonyms to avoid repetition


  • These cars were first made in 1972. When they were first produced, they were not very popular.
  • If you have any thoughts on the subject,please let me know. I shall be interested to hear your ideas.

    7. Use of a construction implying whole part or part-whole relationship

  • You will need to take some tools with you. You can get a hammer, a saw and a screwdriver from most big department stores.
  • Large cars and lorries are not advised to use this route. These vehicles should take the other road.

    8. Use of related word forms


    Seven people have been arrested so far. The arrests were made late last night.

    9. Use of parallel structures

  • It is possible that the plan will succeed. It is equally possible that it will fail.

    Tips on Using Cohesive Devices

    Here are some special tips for enhancing the use of cohesive devices:

    1. Parallelism in Sentence Structure

    Ensure parallel structure in sentences to create symmetry and coherence. For example: She likes to hike, to swim, and to ride bikes.

    2. Consistent Verb Tenses

    Maintain consistency in verb tenses to avoid confusion. For instance: After she finishes her work, she will join the meeting.

    3. Transition Words for Flow

    Use transition words and phrases for smooth transitions between ideas. Examples include: However, nevertheless, consequently, in contrast, moreover.

    4. Use of Cohesive Devices in Different Text Types

    Adapt your use of cohesive devices to the specific requirements of the text type (e.g., narrative, argumentative, or descriptive).

    5. Vary Sentence Lengths

    Mix short and long sentences to maintain reader interest and engagement.

    6. Employing Cohesive Devices in Speech

    Practice using cohesive devices in spoken language to enhance clarity and coherence during oral communication.

    7. Consider Contextual Relevance

    Ensure that the cohesive devices chosen are contextually relevant and contribute meaningfully to the overall understanding of the text.

    8. Consistent Pronoun Reference

    Be vigilant about consistent pronoun reference, avoiding ambiguity or confusion in identifying the antecedent.

    9. Transitional Paragraphs

    Include well-crafted transitional paragraphs to guide readers through shifts in focus, time, or location within longer texts.

    10. Peer Review for Coherence

    Have peers review your writing for coherence, specifically asking them to identify how well cohesive devices contribute to the overall flow and understanding of the text.
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