Understanding Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification system for the cognitive domain of learning objectives, developed by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues in the 1950s. The cognitive domain refers to the mental skills and abilities that are involved in learning and problem-solving, such as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The taxonomy is often presented as a hierarchy, with six levels of learning objectives that reflect increasing levels of complexity and abstraction.
The three domains of learning objectives are:
  1. Cognitive: This domain includes the mental skills and abilities that are involved in acquiring, storing, and using knowledge, such as remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating.
  2. Affective: This domain includes the emotional and attitudinal aspects of learning, such as motivation, attitudes, values, and self-esteem.
  3. Psychomotor: This domain includes the physical skills and abilities that are involved in learning, such as coordination, dexterity, and fine motor skills.
The six levels of learning objectives in Bloom's Taxonomy are:
  1. Remembering: This level involves recalling or remembering previously learned information.
  2. Understanding: This level involves comprehending the meaning of the information and being able to explain it in one's own words.
  3. Applying: This level involves using the information in a new context or situation.
  4. Analyzing: This level involves breaking down the information into smaller parts and examining the relationships among them.
  5. Synthesizing: This level involves combining and integrating the information in a new way, such as creating a new product or solution.
  6. Evaluating: This level involves making judgments about the value or quality of the information based on criteria or standards.
To use Bloom's Taxonomy in teaching, educators can create learning objectives that align with the appropriate level of the taxonomy, and design activities and assessments that help students achieve those objectives. It is important to note that the taxonomy is not a fixed, rigid structure, but rather a flexible framework that can be adapted and modified to fit the needs of different learners and learning contexts.

Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Company.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.

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